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Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 1:

1. If your indicator matched the plot of the indicator you were trying to duplicate, you got

this one correct

2. This is quick way to remember the order of precedence: Multiplication, Division,

Addition, Subtraction.

3. ( 5 - 4 ) * (3 / (2 - 1))

4. Mov( C, 21, S) * 1.2

5. They would all plot the exact same thing, The closing price of the base security of the

chart

Chapter 2:

1. All three would be true. Remember, any number other than zero is considered to be true.

2. False. The opening price equals 28 but is not greater than 28.

3. 1) True

2) False

3) True

4) True

4. All If()s have a condition, a data array to return for true results and a data array to return

for false results

Chapter 3:

1. All of them can. The MACD() and the If() function both return data arrays. C is the

closing prices which is already a data array. The number 10 is a data array of a single value i.e. a

constant.

2. Formula 1 references formula 2 which references formula 1. This circular reference will

not work and causes errors.

3. False, formulas that do not use the Fml() function run faster than those that do.

However, sometimes the benefits of the Fml() function outweigh this drawback.

Copyright © 2002 Equis International

4. To ensure the name of the formula exactly matches what metastock sees, the Fml()

function should be entered using the Paste Function window.

5. False, any function can be nested in any place where a data array is accepted, however,

not all functions accept data arrays

Chapter 4:

1. A straight line that increases in value by one for each period of data in the chart.

2. If( Close < Open, Close, Open )

3. False, the Cross() function only returns a 1 when the first data array rises above the

second. All other times, it returns a 0

4. True, with the Alert() function, you can create a condition that is true if something occurs

today and something else has already occurred within the past few periods.

5. True, the Zigzag() function allows you to examine data for general trends and patterns. It

is however strongly advised not to use it for buy and sell signals.

Chapter 5:

1. This symbol means that another formula is going to follow. The semicolon is most often

used after declaring a variable but also when multiple formulas are put in one indicator. If used

at the end of the last formula in an indicator, MetaStock will return an error.

2. Close

3. False. While you can plot both lines with one custom indicator, the lines will both be the

same color, style and thickness. All formulas in a single custom indicator have the same

appearance when plotted and can not be changed individually.

4. Yes, just like the Fml() function, the Fmlvar() is best entered through the Paste Function

window. Referenced variables will also be accessed a little slower that if they were written in

the formula in to begin with.

5. The p variable take the value of whatever plot was selected when its indicator is inserted

into the chart.

Quick Reference

Function Name Syntax

Absolute Value abs(DATA ARRAY)

Accumulation/Distribution ad()

Accumulation Swing Index aswing(LIMIT MOVE)

Addition add( DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY)

Alert alert(EXPRESSION, PERIODS)

Arc Tangent atan( Y DATA ARRAY, X DATA ARRAY)

Aroon Down aroondown(PERIODS)

Aroon Up aroonup(PERIODS)

Average Directional

Movement

adx(PERIODS)

Average True Range Atr(PERIODS)

Bars Since barssince(DATA ARRAY)

Bollinger Band Bottom bbandbot(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, METHOD,

DEVIATIONS)

Bollinger Band Top bbandtop(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, METHOD,

DEVIATIONS)

Buying Pressure buyp()

Ceiling ceiling(DATA ARRAY)

Chaikin A/D Oscillator co()

Chaikin’s Money Flow cmf(PERIODS)

Chande Momentum

Oscillator

cmo(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS)

Commodity Channel Index

(EQUIS)

ccie(PERIODS)

Commodity Channel Index

(Standard)

cci(PERIODS)

Commodity Selection Index csi(PERIODS, VALUE, MARGIN, COMMISSION)

Correlation Analysis correl(INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT, PERIODS, SHIFT)

Cosine cos(DATA ARRAY)

Cross cross(DATA ARRAY1, DATA ARRAY2)

Cumulate cum(DATA ARRAY)

Day Of Month dayofmonth()

Day Of Week dayofweek()

Delta delta(TYPE, DATA, PRICE, INTEREST, DIVIDEND)

Dema dema(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS)

Detrended Price Oscillator dpo(PERIODS)

Directional Movement Index dx(PERIODS)

Divergence divergence(DATA ARRAY1, DATA ARRAY2, %

MINIMUM CHANGE)

Division div(DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY)

Dynamic Momentum Index dmi(DATA ARRAY)

Ease of Movement emv(PERIODS, METHOD)

Copyright © 2002 Equis International

Exponent exp(DATA ARRAY)

Fast Fourier Transform fft(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, LENGTH, DETREND or

MEAN, AMPLITUDE or POWER)

Floor floor(DATA ARRAY)

Forecast Oscillator forecastosc(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS)

Formula Call fml(“FORMULA_NAME”)

Formula Variable Call fmlvar(“FORMULA_NAME”, “VARIABLE_NAME”)

Fraction frac(DATA ARRAY)

Gamma gamma(TYPE, DATE, PRICE, INTEREST, DIVIDEND)

Gap Down gapdown()

Gap Up gapup()

Herrick Payoff Index hpi( CENTS, MULTIPLYING FACTOR)

Highest highest( DATA ARRAY)

Highest Bars Ago highestbars( DATA ARRAY)

Highest High Value hhv( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS)

Highest High Value Bars

Ago

hhvbars( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Highest Since highestsince ( Nth, EXPRESSION, DATA ARRAY)

Highest Since Bars Ago highestsincebars( Nth, EXPRESSION, DATA ARRAY)

If if( EXPRESSION, TRUE DATA ARRAY, FALSE DATA

ARRAY)

Inertia inertia( REGRESSION PERIODS, RVI PERIODS)

Input input( “PROMPT TEXT”, MINIMUM VALUE, MAXIMUM

VALUE, DEFAULT VALUE)

Inside inside()

Integer int( DATA ARRAY )

IntraDay Momentum Index imi( PERIODS )

Klinger Volume Oscillator kvo ()

Last Value in Data Array lastvalue( DATA ARRAY )

Linear Regression Indicator linearreg( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Linear Regression Slope linregslope( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Logarithm (natural) log ( DATA ARRAY )

Lowest lowest (DATA ARRAY)

Lowest Bars Ago lowestbars( DATA ARRAY)

Lowest Low Value llv( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Lowers Low Value Bars Ago llvbars( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Lowest Since lowestsince( Nth, EXPRESSION, DATA ARRAY )

Lowest Since Bars Ago lowestsincebars( Nth, EXPRESSION, DATA ARRAY )

MACD macd()

Market Facilitation Index marketfacindex()

Mass Index mass ( PERIODS )

Maximum max( DATA ARRAY 1, DATA ARRAY 2 )

Median Price mp()

MESA Lead Sine mesaleadsine( CYCLE LENGTH )

MESA Sine Wave mesasinewave(CYCLE LENGTH )

Midpoint mid( DAA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Minimum min( DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY )

Minus Direction Movement mdi( PERIODS )

Modulus mod( DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY )

Momentum mo( PERIODS )

Money Flow Index mdi( PERIODS )

Month month()

Moving Average mov( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, METHOD )

Multiplication mul( DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY )

Negative neg( DATA ARRAY )

Negative Volume Index nvi()

On Balance Volume obv()

Option Expiration optionexp()

Option Life life( EXPIRATION DATE )

Outside outside()

Parabolic SAR sar( STEP, MAXIMUM )

Peak Bars Ago peakbars( Nth, DATA ARRAY, % MINIMUM CHANGE )

Peak Value peak( Nth, DATA ARRAY, % MINIMUM CHANGE )

Performance per()

Plus Directional Movement pdi( PERIODS )

Polarized Fractal Efficiency pfe( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, SMOOTHING PERIODS )

Positive Volume Index pvi()

Power power( DATA ARRAY, POWER )

Precision prec( DATA ARRAY, PRECISION )

Price Channel High pricechannelhigh( PERIODS )

Price Channel Low pricechannellow( PERIODS)

Price Oscillator oscp( PERIODS, PERIODS, MA_METHOD,

DIFF_METHOD)

Price Volume Trend pvt()

Projection Band Bottom projbandbot( PERIODS )

Projection Band Top projbandtop( PERIODS )

Projection Oscillator projosc( REGRESSION PERIODS, SLOWING PERIODS )

Put/Call Price option( TYPE, PRICE, INTEREST, DIVIDEND )

Qstick qstick( PERIODS )

r-squared rsquared( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Rally rally()

Rally With Volume rallywithvol()

Random Walk Index of

Highs

rwih( PERIODS )

Random Walk Index of Lows rwil( PERIODS )

Range Indicator rangeindicator( PERIODS, SMOOTHING PERIODS )

Rate of Change roc( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, DIFF_METHOD)

Reaction reaction()

Reaction With Volume reactionwithvol()

Reference ref( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Relative Momentum Index rmi( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, MOMENTUM

PARAMETER )

Copyright © 2002 Equis International

All Rights Reserved

135

Relative Strength Index

(RSI)

rsi( PERIODS )

Relative Volatility Index rvi( PERIODS )

Round round( DATA ARRAY )

Security Data security("SYMBOL",DATA ARRAY)

Selling Pressure sellp()

Sine sine( DATA ARRAY )

Square Root sqrt( DATA ARRAY )

Standard Deviation stdev( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Standard Error ste( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Standard Error Band Bottom stebandbot( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, ERRORS)

Standard Error Band Top stebandtop( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS, ERRORS )

Stochastic Momentum Index stochmomentum( PERIODS, SMOOTHING, DOUBLE

SMOOTHING )

Stochastic Oscillator stoch( %K PERIODS, %K SLOWING )

Subtraction sub( DATA ARRAY, DATA ARRAY )

Summation sum( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Swing Index swing( LIMIT MOVE )

Tema tema( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Theta theta( TYPE, PRICE, INTEREST, DIVIDEND )

Time Series Forecast tsf( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Trade Volume Index tvi( MINIMUM TICK )

TRIX trix( PERIODS )

Trough bars ago troughbars(Nth, DATA ARRAY, % MINIMUM CHANGE )

Trough Value trough(Nth, DATA ARRAY, % MINIMUM CHANGE )

Typical Price typical()

Ultimate Oscillator ult( CYCLE1, CYCLE2, CYCLE3 )

Value When valuewhen(Nth, EXPRESSION, DATA ARRAY )

Variance var( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Vega vega( TYPE, PRICE, INTEREST, DIVIDEND )

Vertical Horizontal Filter vhf( DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

Volatility, Chaikin’s vol( MA PERIODS, ROC PERIODS )

Volatility, Option volo()

Volume Oscillator oscv( PERIODS, PERIODS, MA_METHOD,

DIFF_METHOD)

Weighted Close wc()

Wilder’s Smoothing wilders(DATA ARRAY, PERIODS )

William’s %R willr( %R PERIODS )

William’s A/D willa()

Writeif writeif( EXPRESSION, “TRUE TEXT”, “FALSE TEXT” )

Writeval writeval( DATA ARRAY )

Year year()

Zig Zag zig( DATA ARRAY, MINIMUM CHANGE,

DIFF_METHOD )

Glossary

Binary Wave: a line that cycles between two values, usually 0 and 1. This is a basic version of

the more advance oscillators.

Constant: a fixed, numerical value.

Data Array: an ordered, sequential grouping of numbers

Formula: a logical arrangement of one or more functions and data arrays.

Function: a command to perform a specific mathematical calculation.

Keyword: a letter or word recognized by MetaStock to either a function command or a data

array

Nesting: the practice of inserting one function or command inside another.

Operators: a subset of functions that can be expressed by a single symbol.

Parameter: a piece of information required by a function for it to be calculated. All parameters

are listed in an order determined by the function and enclosed by the function’s parentheses.

Ziggurat: a structure resembling the pyramids of Egypt, but normally associated with the ancient

cultures of South America.