Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

1. Introduction

F. A. Hayek is widely recognised as the most sophisticated defender of liberal values in

the twentieth century. The importance of his thought on morality and politics can be

understood when one takes into account the impact of the so-called neo-liberal theory on

governmental policies towards the emancipation of the market process from the political

regulation of the state. Hayek is one of the founding fathers of that theory. His views of

the free market and the state as well as his critique of social justice constituted the

ideological arsenal of the New Right in the 1980’s while they continue to be influential

today, especially in Eastern and Central European countries.

This paper argues that Hayek’s neo-liberalism is self-undermined. The concept of

morality that Hayek advances is epistemologically founded upon a physiological theory

of mind. That concept is concerned with the recognition and respect of the natural limits

of human reason. Hayek’s concept of morality methodologically forms the dimension of

social spontaneity and cultural evolution that is reflected in his idea of the moral market.

The latter is a spontaneous and evolutionary realm in which moral subjectivism and

formalism are dominant characteristics.

Hayek’s idea of the moral market justifies politics based on evolutionary

rationality. Such politics is formal and epistemologically unable to conceive normative

liberal values. Consequently, Hayek’s minimal state is developed as a formal political

organisation that fails to preserve the spontaneous and evolutionary market in terms of a

normative framework of freedom, equality and justice. This failure universalises moral

confusion, relativism and conflict, leading to the spontaneous and evolutionary

destruction of a liberal order. If liberalism is to be considered as a moral and political

ideal of Great or Open Society, it has to be viewed as being dependent on substantive

politics. Such politics is based on a critical reason and can conceive and evaluate the

market institutions in terms of normative values.

This paper is divided into seven sections. Section 2 deals with Hayek’s theory of

mind and his anti-rationalist concept of morality. Section 3 focuses on the

methodological development of social spontaneity and cultural evolution. Section 4

examines Hayek’s theory of the moral market and its relationship to politics. Section 5

investigates the Hayekian minimal state and its negative political preservation of the

market. Section 6 deals with the illiberal development of Hayek’s account. Section 7

concludes that Hayek’s theory of the market and state requires substantive politics to

overcome spontaneous and evolutionary problems of demoralisation.