Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

DISTRIBUTION

As regards distribution and wages, in the first place we should adhere to our traditional policy, developing the

system of differential and graduated taxation, and we should be prepared, if unequal distribution of wealth

continues, to limit further the right of inheritance. This is not a new Liberal doctrine: it is many decades old.

On the question of wages we have to recognise that unless we can secure an increase in terms of food and

other commodities of the national production the State cannot radically modify the general standard of living

in the country; or by administrative action raise the level of wages which economic conditions are imposing

on us. But the State can and should enforce a minimum in certain industries, provided that minimum is

reasonably in harmony with the competitive level of wages. Such action can prevent workers whose economic

position is not a strong one−−and this applies particularly to many women's employment−−from being

compelled to accept wages substantially less than the current standard. I therefore welcome the gradual

extension of the Trade Board system, provided it follows the general principle recommended in the Cave

Report−−that the community should use its full powers of compulsion only in regard to the minimum, and

that so far as all other classes of wages are concerned, the State should encourage collective bargaining. With

this proviso, compulsory enforcement of a minimum could also be extended to the workpeople covered by

Whitley Councils.

As regards all wages above the minimum the Cave Committee recommended that, provided they are reached

by agreement on the Board, and provided that a sufficiently large proportion of the Board concur, the wage so

determined shall be enforced by civil process, whereas in the cases of the minimum, the rates would be

determined if necessary by arbitration of the State−appointed members of the Board, and non−payment would

be a penal offence. The Trade Boards now cover three million workers. Two million are in occupations for

which Trade Boards are under consideration, and there are a further two million under Industrial Councils or

Whitley Councils. If State powers are to be employed in trades employing seven millions of the eighteen

million wage−earners of the country, the scope of those powers needs to be very carefully defined.