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Приложение 2. Список английских анализируемых лексем.

В Приложении 2 приводится список английских консубстанциональных

терминов, предлагаются их лингвистические определения, взятые из Oxford

English Dictionary.

ALTERNANT – The name given to any one of the possible variants found

within any particular feature of speech or language.

1. Alternating, changing from one to the other.

2. Min. Consisting of alternating layers or laminae.

ASPECT – In Russian and other Slavonic languages, a verbal category of which

the function is to express action or being in respect of its inception, duration, or

соmpletion, etc.; by extension applied to such forms in other languages. The earlier

term in Slavonic grammars was 'branch'.

I. The action of looking at.

1.a. The action of looking at anything; beholding, contemplation; gaze, view. b. A

look, a glance.

2. Mental looking, sight; consideration, regard, respect.

3. A looking for anything, expectation.

II. Way of looking, as to position or direction.

4. Astral. The relative positions of the heavenly bodies as they appear to an observer

on the earth's surface at a given time.

5. a. A looking in a given direction; the facing or fronting of anything, as a house, a

window, or a steep or sloping surface, in any direction; exposure. b. aspect ratio, (a)

Aeronaut., the ratio of the span to the mean chord of an aerofoil; also, the ratio of the

square of the span to the total area of the aerofoil; (b) of a television or

cinematographic picture: the ratio of the width to the height.

6. The side or surface which fronts or is turned towards any given direction.

7. The direction in which a tiling has respect or practical bearing; bearing upon,

reference to.

8. The point from which one looks; a point of sight or of view.

9. One of the ways in which things may be looked at or contemplated, or in which

they present themselves to the mind; a phase.

III. Appearance.

10. The look which one wears; expression of countenance; countenance, face.

11. The appearance presented by an object to the eye; look.

12. The appearance presented by circumstances, etc., to the mind.

13. concr. A thing seen, a sight; an appearance.

14. Ecology. The characteristic seasonal appearance or constitution of a plant


15. In Signalling: an indication given by means of a light.

ATTRIBUTE – Sometimes used for: A word denoting an attribute; an attributive

word; a predicable. esp. in Sentence Analysis: = Attributive adjunct, i.e. an adjective, or a

word, phrase, or clause, performing the function of an adjective.

1. A quality or character ascribed to any person or thing, one which is in common

estimation or usage assigned to him.

2. Distinguished quality or character; honour, credit, reputation ascribed.

3. A material object recognized as appropriate to, and thus symbolic of, any office

or actor.

4. a. A quality or character considered to belong to or be inherent in a person or

thing; a characteristic quality. b. rarely applied to: A bodily quality. c. in Logic. That

which may be predicated of any thing; a quality, mode of existence, affection.

BASE – The form of a word to which suffixes are attached; the theme.

I. The lowest or supporting part.

1. The bottom of any object, when considered as its support, or as that on which it

stands or rests.

2. a. fig. Fundamental principle, foundation, groundwork. b. Ground of action or

attitude. c. A notional structure or entity conceived of as underlying some system of

activity or operations; the resources, etc., on which something draws or depends for its


3. Arch. a. The part of a column, consisting of the plinth and various mouldings,

between the bottom of the shaft and top of the pedestal, or, if there is no pedestal,

between the shaft and the pavement, b. The plinth and mouldings which form the

slightly projecting part at the bottom of the wall of a room. c. The lowest course of

masonry in a building.

4. A pedestal.

5. A socket.

6. In mechanical arts: a. in Printing: The bottom or footing of letters. b. in

Gunnery: The protuberant rear-portion of a cannon, between the knob of the cascabel

and the base-ring. c. Electr. One of the three electrodes of a transistor.

7. Bot. and Zool. That extremity of a part or organ by which it is attached to the

trunk; e.g. the part of a leaf adjoining the leaf-stalk, of a pericarp adjoining the

peduncle, of a thumb adjoining the hand.

8. Her. The lower part of a shield; spec. the width of a 'bar' parted off from the

bottom by a horizontal line.

9. Geom. That line or surface of a plane or solid figure on which it stands, or is

considered to stand, Thus: of a triangle, any one side in respect of the other two; of a

cone or pyramid, the circle or polygon remote from its apex; of a cylinder or prism, the

lower of the two circles or equal polygons which form its ends.

10. Fortification. The imaginary line which connects the salient angle of two

adjacent bastions.

11. The main or most important element or ingredient, looked upon as its

fundamental part.

12. Cosmetics. A substance used as a foundation.

13. Dyeing. A substance used as a mordant, by which colours are fixed in the

material dyed.

14. Mod. Chem. The electropositive compound body, whether metallic oxide,

hydrate, or alkaloid, which enters into combination with an acid to form a salt; the

correlative of ACID, including, but having wider meaning than.

III. That from which a commencement of action or reckoning is made, regarded

as a fundamental starting-point.

15. a. The line or limit from which the start is made in a race, or which serves as a

goal for the finish. b. The fixed line or 'goal' across which players endeavour to strike

the ball in such games as hockey. c. The fixed points or stations round. d. fig., in

various expressions in U.S. slang, as off one's base, wildly mistaken, crazy, mad; to

get to first base: to achieve the first step towards one's objective.

16. Mil. The line or place upon which the general of an army relies as a strong

hold and magazine, and from which the operations of a campaign are conducted.

17. Surv. A line on the earth's surface or in space, of which the exact length and

position are accurately determined, and which is used as a base for trigonometrical

observations and computations.

18. Math. The number from which, as a definite starting-point, a system of

numeration or logarithms proceeds.

BURST – A sudden and violent issuing forth. Chiefly of light and sounds.

I. 1. Damage, injury, harm; loss.

II. Senses formed anew from the verb.

2. a. An act of bursting; the result of this action. b. burst-up: the failure, collapse,

of an organization or scheme. c. House-breaking, burglary.

3. A sudden opening on the view.

4. a. An explosion, eruption, outbreak. b. spec. Of gunfire, esp. from an automatic


5. A vehement outbreak (of emotion or its expression).

6. a. A great and sudden exertion of activity, a vigorous display of energy; a 'spurt'.

b. Horsemanship. A hard run, a gallop without a check. c. Hence, in other sports; spec.

a short spurt, etc., at greater speed than that employed for the remainder of the course.

colloq. A prolonged bout of drunkenness, a 'spree'.

CAESURA – 1) in Greek and Latin prosody: The division of a metrical foot

between two words, especially in certain recognized places near the middle of the

line. 2) In English prosody: A pause or breathing-place about the middle of a metrical

1ine, generally indicated by a pause in the sense.

CASE – 1) In inflected languages, one of the varied forms of a substantive,

adjective, or pronoun, which express the varied relations in which it may stand to

some other word in the sentence, e.g. as subject or object of a verb, attribute to another

noun, object of a preposition, etc. 2) But as many modern languages have nearly or

quite lost these variations of form, case is sometimes loosely used for the relation itself,

whether indicated by distinct form or not.

I. 1. a. A thing that befalls or happens to any one; an event, occurrence, hap, or

chance. b. A deed, a thing.

2. Chance, hazard, hap.

3. a. An instance or example of the occurrence or existence of a thing. b. An

infatuation; a situation in which two people fall in love.

4. a. the case: The actual state or position of matters; the fact. b. A state of

matters relating to a particular person or thing. c. all a case: all one.

5. a. Condition, state (of circumstances external or internal), plight. b. esp.

Physical condition, as in good case (arch.); also simply, in case, out of case c. in

case to or for: in a condition or position to or for, prepared, ready. .

6. Law. 'The state of facts juridically considered'. a. A cause or suit brought into

court for decision. b. A statement of the facts of any matter sub judice, drawn up for

the consideration of a higher court. c. A cause which has been decided: leading case,

one that has settled some important point and is frequently cited as a precedent. d.

The case as presented or 'put' to the Court by one of the parties in a suit; hence, the

sum of the grounds on which he rests his claim. e. A form of procedure in the

Common Law. f. An incident or set of circumstances requiring investigation by the

police or other detective agency.

7. case of conscience: A practical question concerning which conscience may be

in doubt; a question as to the application of recognized principles of faith and

obedience to one's duty in a particular case or set of circumstances.

8. Med. a. The condition of disease in a person. b. An instance of disease, or other

condition requiring medical treatment; 'a record of the progress of disease in an

individual'. c. U.S. slang. of persons: A 'specimen', 'cure'.

CLAUSE – A short sentence; a single passage or member of a discourse or

writing; a distinct part or member of a sentence.

1. The close or end of a period.

2. A particular and separate article, stipulation, or proviso, in any formal or legal


CODE – The central concern is how the bilingual speaker becomes 'inputted'

for two language codes.

1. a. Rom. Law. One of the various systematic collections of statutes made by later

emperors, as the code of Theodosius, of Justinian; spec. the latter. b. A systematic

collection or digest of the laws of a country, or of those relating to a particular subject.

2. transf. a. A system or collection of rules or regulations on any subject. b. 'A

collection of receipts or prescriptions represented by the Pharmacopoeia'.

3. a. A system of military or naval signals. b. Telegr. A system of words arbitrarily

used for other words or for phrases, to secure brevity and secrecy. c. Cybernetics. Any

system of symbols and rules for expressing information or instructions in a form usable

by a computer or other machine for processing or transmitting information.

4. A collection of writings forming a book, such as the Old or the New Testament.

Also, a recognized division of such forming a volume.

CONJUNCTION – One of the Parts of Speech; an uninflected word used to

connect clauses or sentences, or to co-ordinate words in the same clause.

1. The action of conjoining; the fact or condition of being conjoined; union,

connexion, combination.

2. spec. a. Union in marriage. b. Sexual union, copulation. c. Joining in light,

hostile encounter. d. Mixture or union of 'elements' or substances; one of the

processes in alchemy.

3. Astrol. and Astron. An apparent proximity of two planets or other heavenly

bodies; the position of these when they are in the same, or nearly the same, direction as

viewed from the earth.

4. The occurrence of events in combination; a combination of events or

circumstances. a. A concrete example of conjunction; a number of persons, things, or

elements, conjoined or associated together; a combination, association, union. b. A

joining; a joint. c. A thing that conjoins or unites; a bond or tie.

DECLENSION – 1) The variation of the form of a noun, adjective, or pronoun,

constituting its different cases ; case-inflexion. 2) Each of the classes into which the

nouns of any language are grouped according to their inflexions. 3) The action of

declining, i. e. setting forth in order the different cases of, a noun, adjective, or

pronoun. 4) Formerly, in a wider sense: Change of the form or of the ending of a

word, as in derivation.

I. 1. The action or state of declining, or deviating from a vertical or horizontal

position; slope, inclination; a declining or sinking into a lower position, as of the sun

towards setting.

2. fig. Deviation or declining from a standard; falling away , apostasy.

3. The process or state of declining, or sinking into a lower or inferior condition;

gradual diminution, deterioration, or decay; falling off, decline. b. Sunken or fallen


II. 4. The action of declining; courteous refusal, declinature.

DEGREE – Each of the three stages (positive, comparative, superlative) in the

comparison of an adjective or adverb.

I. 1. a. A step in an ascent or descent; one of a flight of steps; a step or rung of a

1adder. b. transf. Something resembling a step; each of a series of things placed one

above another like steps; row, tier, shelf, etc.

2. fig. a. A step or stage in a process, etc., esp. one in an ascending or descending

scale. b. esp. in phr. by degrees: by successive steps or stages, by little and little,


3. a. A 'step' in direct line of descent; in pl. the number of such steps, upward or

downward, or both upward to a common ancestor and downward from him,

determining the proximity of blood of collateral descendants. Prohibited or forbidden

degrees: the number of such steps within which marriage is prohibited; degrees of

consanguinity and affinity within which marriage is not allowed. b. Used, by extension,

of ethnological relationship through more or less remote common ancestry.

4. a. A stage or position in the scale of dignity or rank; relative social or official

rank, grade, order, estate, or station. b. A rank or class of persons. c. of animals, things

without life, etc.

5. Relative condition or state of being; manner, way, wise; relation, respect.

6. a. A step or stage in intensity or amount; the relative intensity, extent, measure,

or amount of a quality, attribute, or action. b. a degree: a considerable measure or

amount of. To a degree (colloq.): to an undefined, but considerable or serious, extent;

extremely, seriously. To the last degree: to the utmost measure. c. Applied in the

natural philosophy of the Middle Ages to the successive stages of intensity of the

elementary qualities of bodies (heat and cold, moisture and dryness). d. Crim. Law.

Relative measure of criminality, as in principal, in the first, or second, degree: In

U.S. Law, A distinctive grade of crime (with different maximum punishments), as

'murder in the first degree', or 'second degree'. e. third degree.

II. Specific and technical senses.

7. A stage of proficiency in an art, craft, or course of study: a. esp. An academical

rank or distinction conferred by a university or college as a mark of proficiency in

scholarship; also as a recognition of distinction, or a tribute of honour. Also in legal

use. Originally used of the preliminary steps to the Mastership or Doctorate, i.e. the

Bachelorship and License; afterwards of the Mastership also. b. Freemasonry. Each of

the steps of proficiency in the order, conferring successively higher rank on the initiated,

as the first or 'entered apprentice degree', the second or 'fellow craft degree', the third

or 'degree of master mason'.

8. a. Geom. (Astron., Geog., etc.) A unit of measurement of angles or circular arcs,

being an angle equal to the 90th part of a right angle, or an arc equal to the 360th part

of the circumference of a circle (which subtends this angle at the centre). b. transf. A

position on the earth's surface or the celestial sphere, as measured by degrees (chiefly

of latitude).

9. Thermometry. a. A unit of temperature, varying according to the scale employed.

b. Each of the marks denoting degrees of temperature on the scale of a thermometer,

or the interval between two successive marks. The interval between the freezing and boiling points of water is divided in Fahrenheit's scale into 180 degrees, in the

Centigrade into 100, in Reaumur's into 80. c. degree day, a unit used to determine the

heating requirements of buildings.

10. Mus. a. The interval between any note of a scale and the next note. b. Each of

the successive notes forming the scale. c. Each of the successive lines and spaces on

the stave, which denote the position of the notes; the interval between two of these.

11. Arith. A group of three figures taken together in numeration.

12. Alg. The rank of an equation or expression as determined by the highest power

of the unknown or variable quantity, or the highest dimensions of the terms, which it


EXPLOSION – Explosive utterance (of a sound).

The action of exploding.

1. The action of treating with scorn, rejecting or scouting (a notion, system, etc.);


2. The action of driving out, or of issuing forth, with violence and noise; an

instance of the same; a volcanic eruption.

3. a. Of a gas, gunpowder, etc.: The action of 'going off with a loud noise under

the influence of suddenly developed internal energy; an instance of this; also used of

electric discharges. Of a boiler, bomb, gun, etc.: The action of suddenly bursting or

flying in pieces from a similar cause. b. The resulting noise; a detonation. c. Golf. An


4. a. A breaking or bursting forth into sudden activity; an outbreak, outburst (of

anger, indignation, laughter, etc.). b. A rapid or sudden marked increase or


FIGURE –1) any of the permitted deviations from the normal forms of words

(e.g. Aphaeresis, Syncope, Elision), or from the ordinary rules of construction (e.g.

Ellipsis). Formerly also figure of speech. 2) pl. the name of the first form in certain

Jesuit schools and colleges, divided into High (or Great) and Low (or Little)

Figures: corresponding to the Rudiments or Accidence of other places.

I. Form, shape.

1. a. The form of anything as determined by the outline; external form; shape

generally. b. In generalized sense, as an attribute of body. c. Appearance, aspect;

also, attitude, posture. d. transf. The 'shape', state.

2. Geom. A definite form constituted by a given line or continuous series of

lines so arranged as to enclose a superficial space, or by a given surface or series of

surfaces enclosing a space of three dimensions.

3. The proper or distinctive shape or appearance (of a person or thing).

4. a. Of a living being: Bodily shape, including appearance and bearing. Now

chiefly of persons. b. The bodily frame, considered with regard to its appearance.

5. a. An embodied (human) form; a person considered with regard to visible

form or appearance. b. colloq. A person of grotesque or untidy appearance. figure

of fun: a ludicrous personage, an oddity.

6. transf. A person as an object of mental contemplation; a personage. fatherfigure.

a. in neutral sense, with qualifying adj.: To present a (good, bad, splendid,

ridiculous, etc.) appearance; to produce an impression of specified character on the

beholder. b. To appear in a ridiculous aspect. c. To occupy a conspicuous or

distinguished position; to play a prominent or important part; to attract admiration

or respect.

7. a. Importance, distinction, 'mark'. Now only with reference to persons, in

phrases (somewhat arch.) man, woman of figure, a person of rank and station. b.

Style of living, ostentation, display. arch.

II. Represented form; image, likeness.

8. a. The image, likeness, or representation of something material or immaterial.

b. An imaginary form, a phantasm.

9. esp. An artificial representation of the human form. a. In sculpture: A statue,

an image, an effigy. To work by the figure: perh. to operate on a wax effigy of a

person, for the purpose of enchantment (Schmidt). b. In painting, drawing, etc.: A

representation of human form (as opposed to landscape, still life, etc.). Now

restricted to representation of the whole or greater part of the body.

10. a. Represented character; part enacted; hence, position, capacity. b. One

acting a part. c. A person dressed in character.

11. An emblem, type. In figure: in emblematical representation.

III. Delineated or devised form; a design or pattern.

12. A delineation illustrating the text of a book; a diagram, an illustration.

When used as a reference usually abbreviated to fig. Astrol. A diagram of the

aspects of the astrological houses; a horoscope. a figure of heaven or the heavens:

a scheme or table showing the disposition of the heavens at a given time. To cast,

erect, set a figure.

13. a. An arrangement of lines or other markings forming an ornamental

device; one of the devices combined into a decorative pattern; also applied to

similar markings produced by natural agency. b. Dancing. One of the evolutions or

movements of a dance or dancer; also, a set of evolutions; one of the divisions into

which a set dance is divided. c. Skating. 'A movement, or series of movements,

beginning and ending at the center'.

IV. A written character.

14. gen. Applied, e.g., to a letter of the alphabet, the symbol of a musical note,

a mathematical symbol, etc.

15. a. A numerical symbol. Originally, and still chiefly, applied to the ten

symbols of the so-called Arabic notation, two (or double), three, four, etc.

figures; a number amounting to ten or more, a hundred or more, a thousand or

more, etc.; a sum of money indicated by such a number, man of figures: one

versed in arithmetic or statistics.

16. Hence, An amount, number, sum of money expressed in figures.

V. In various uses, representing the technical applications of Gr.

17. Rhet. a. Any of the various 'forms' of expression, deviating from the normal

arrangement or use of words, which are adopted in order to give beauty, variety, or

force to a composition; e.g. Aposiopesis, Hyperbole, Metaphor, etc. b. In a more

restricted sense: A metaphor or metaphorical mode of expression; an image,


18. Mus. 'Any short succession of notes, either as melody or a group of chords,

which produces a single, complete, and distinct impression'.

FLEXION – Modification of the form of a word; esp. the change of ending in

conjugation, declension, etc.; inflexion. Also, the modified form or ending of a


1. The action of bending, curvature; bent condition; an instance of this. a. esp.

The bending of a limb or joint by the action of the flexor muscles. b. A kneeling (in

prayer), genuflexion. c. A turning of the eye in any direction.

2. Alteration, change, modification. A modification of the sound or tone of the

voice in singing or speaking; inflexion.

3. concr. The bent part of anything; a bend, curve.

4. Math. - Flexure 6.

GRADE –1) The position occupied in an ablaut-series by a particular vowel or

form of a root. 2) Applied (after Grimm's use of G. grad) to denote the class of a

consonant as 'tenuis' or 'media'.

1. Math. a. A degree of angular measurement, or of latitude or longitude; the 90th

part of a right angle or quadrant. b. In the centesimal mode of dividing angular

quantity: The hundredth part of a right angle.

2. One of a flight of steps.

3. A step or stage in a process; rarely spec. a step in preferment.

4. a. A degree or position in the scale of rank, dignity, social station, eminence,

proficiency, etc. b. A number of persons holding the same relative social rank or

official dignity; a class. c. A class at school in relation to advancement. d. A mark (usu.

alphabetical) indicating an assessment of the year's work, examination papers, etc., of a


5. a. In things: A degree of comparative quality or value. b. A class of things,

constituted by having the same quality or value. c. grade A, Grade A: of the highest

grade in value, of the best or highest quality; hence colloq, extremely good, first-rate.

6. Path. Of a disease: Degree or condition of intensity.

7. With reference to animals: A result of cross-breeding, a hybrid. Now techn. in

cattle-breeders' language, a variety of animal produced by crossing a native stock with

a superior breed.

8. Zool a. In the genetic classification of animals, a group constituted by the fact

mat its members are presumed to have branched from the common stem at about the

same point of its development. b. A group of animals at a similar level of development,

but not necessarily having a common genetic origin.

9. U.S. a. In a road, railway, etc.: Amount of inclination to the horizontal; rate of

ascent or descent. b. An inclined portion of a railway or road; a slope, an ascent or

descent. c. U.S. local. In mining districts: A portion of road. d. Physical Geogr. The

condition of a river in which, after initial down-cutting of its bed, further down-cutting

is balanced by aggradation; a state of equilibrium between the erosion of material

from a river-bed and the deposition of fresh sediment.

HEAD – 1) The initial stressed element(s) in a sequence of sounds before the

nucleus. 2) The word or group sharing the syntactic functions of the whole of a

subordinative construction is called the head, and the other components are

subordinate. Thus in English adjective noun groups, the noun is head and the

adjective subordinate. In adverb adjective groups the adjective is head and the

adverb subordinate.

I. The literal sense, and directly connected uses.

1. The anterior part of the body of an animal, when separated by a neck, or other

wise distinguished, from the rest of the body; it contains the mouth and special senseorgans,

and the brain. a. In man, the upper division of the body, joined to the trunk by

the neck. b. In lower animals. c. A headache, esp. such a condition caused by a blow or

over-indulgence in liquor.

2. a. As the seat of mind, thought, intellect, memory, or imagination; Often

contrasted with heart, as the seat of the emotions: Formerly (rarely) in reference to

disposition. b. As a part essential to life; hence, in phrases.

3. a. A representation, figure, or image of a head. b. The obverse side of a coin,

when bearing the figure of a head; the reverse being called the tail; in phr. head(s) or

tail(s), used in tossing a coin to decide a chance. c. A postage-stamp: so called from

the figure of the sovereign's head.

4. In reference to, and hence denoting, the hair on the head.

5. The hair as dressed in some particular manner; applied esp. in the 18th. c. to the

heads of powdered and pomaded hair drawn up over a cushion or stuffing, and dressed

with gauze, ribbon, etc., then worn; hence, a head-dress. b. A horse's headstall.

6. Venery. The 'attire' or antlers of a deer, roebuck, etc.

II. A tiling or part of a thing resembling a head in form or position.

7. The upper or principal extremity of various things, esp. when rounded,

projecting, or of some special shape. a. The striking or cutting part of certain weapons

and instruments (as distinct from the shaft or handle): as of an axe, spear, arrow,

hammer, club, etc. b. The rounded or knobbed extremity of a pin, nail, screw, etc.,

opposite to the point. c. The extremity of a bone, at which it articulates with another

bone; esp. when rounded. d. The relatively fixed end of a muscle (usually consisting

of a tendon) by which it is attached to a bone; the origin of a muscle. e. The bulb at the

end of a tube as in a thermometer. f. The rounded part of a comet, comprising the

nucleus and coma, as distinct from the tail. g. Music. That part of a note (in modern

notation round or oval) which determines its position on the stave, as distinct from the

stem or tail. h. That part of a lute, violin, etc. above the neck, in which the tuning-pins

are inserted; usually of a rounded form, and often artistically carved. i. The upper end

or point of a violin-bow; also, the projecting part at the handle end in which the hairs

are inserted. j. The upright timber of a gate at the opposite end from the hinges

(opposite to the heel); each of the two upright pieces at the ends of a hurdle. k. The flat

end of a barrel, cask, or similar vessel; the membrane stretched across the top or end

of a drum. l. The capital of a column. m. The cover of an alembic or crucible. n. A

cover or hood for a carriage. o. A collective trade-name for the larger plates of

tortoiseshell (usually thirteen) on the carapace of the hawk's-bill turtle. p. The upper

member or part of various other things. q. The closed end of a cylinder of a pump or

engine, esp. an internal-combustion engine; a cylinder-head or cylinder-cover. r. Of a

bicycle frame s. Of an explosive shell.

8. a. Any rounded or compact part of a plant, usually at the top of the stem: e.g. a

compact mass of leaves (as in the cabbage and lettuce), of leaf-stalks (as in the celery),

of flower-buds (as in the cauliflower), or of flowers, esp. of sessile florets upon a

common receptacle, as in the Composites (= CAPITULUM); one of the young shoots of

asparagus; an ear of corn; the 'cap' or pileus of a mushroom, etc.; the capsule of the

poppy. Also applied to the compound bulb of garlic, and . formerly to a simple bulb,

as in the onion. b. The rounded leafy top of a tree or shrub.

9. A collection of foam or froth on the top of liquor, esp. ale or beer. b. A collection

of cream on the surface of milk.

10. Various technical uses. a. A bundle of flax or silk. b. A tile of half the usual

length, used at the eaves of a roof. c. Local name for certain geological formations. d.

Gold-mining. A rammer for crushing quartz. e. A device designed to convert variations

in an electrical signal into variations in the motion of a stylus (in the making of a

gramophone record) or vice versa (in the playing of one).

11. The top, summit, upper end.

12. a. The top of a page or writing; hence, Something, as a title, written at the top

of a page, section, etc.; a heading. b. The top of a book. c. A headline in a newspaper.

The maturated part of a boil, abscess, etc., at which it tends to break. Chiefly in

phrases, as to come to a head, to suppurate.

13. The upper end of something on a slope or so regarded; e.g. that end of a lake at

which a river enters it; the higher end of a valley, the inner extremity of a cave, gulf,

etc.; that end of a bed, grave, etc. towards which a person's head lies; that end of a

table at which the chief seat is.

14. spec. The source of a river or stream.

15. A body of water kept at a height for supplying a mill, etc.; the height of such a

body of water, or the force of its fall (estimated in terms of the pressure on a unit of


16. The foremost part or end; the front. a. The front of a procession, army, or he

like. b. The front, outer or projecting end of a fortification, a pier, etc.

17. a. The beginning (of a word, writing, etc.). b. Astrol. The commencement of a zodiacal sign, i.e. the point where the sun enters it.

18. The thick end of a chisel or wedge, opposite to the edge.

19. A projecting point of the coast, esp. when of considerable height; a cape,

headland, promontory. Now usually in place-names. b. A projecting point of a rock or


20. Coal-mining. An underground passage or level for working the coal.

21. An end, extremity (of anything of greater length than breadth), exc. in certain

special uses, as of a stone or brick in a building, or of a bridge.

III. 22. Various figurative uses arising from preceding senses.

a. A person to whom others are subordinate; a chief, captain, commander, ruler,

leader, principal person, head man. b. spec. The master or principal of a college or

'house' in a university; also short for HEADMASTER. C. A collection of persons holding a

position of command or leadership. d. Applied to things or places: The chief city,

capital; the chief or most excellent part.

INFLECTION – The modification of the form of a word to express the different

grammatical relations into which it may enter; including the declension of

substantives, adjectives and pronouns, the conjugation of verbs, the comparison of

adjectives and adverbs.

1. a. The action of inflecting or bending, or, more particularly, of bending in or

towards itself. b. The condition of being inflected or bent; concr. a bending, bend,

curvature, or angle. c. fig. A mental or moral bending or turning.

2. Optics. The bending of a ray of light, at the edge of a body, into the geometrica1

shadow. Now called DIFFRACTION.

3. Geom. Change of curvature from convex to concave at a particular point on a

curve; the point at which this takes place is called a point of inflexion (or shortly an

inflexion); at such a point the moving tangent to the curve becomes stationary, the

direction of its angular motion being changed; hence inflexion is also applied to such a

stationary tangent itself, or to the analogous stationary osculating plane (plane

inflexion) in a non-plane curve.

4. Modulation of the voice; in speaking or singing: a change in the pitch or tone of

the voice.

LANGUE – A language viewed as an abstract system, accepted universally within

a speech-community, in contrast to the actual linguistic behaviour of individuals.

A tongue or language.

LEVEL – In linguistics there are various ranges, and two basic levels,

phonological and grammatical.

I. 1. a. An instrument which indicates a line parallel to the plane of the horizon,

used in determining the position as to horizontality of a surface to which it is applied.

b. Erroneously glossed as = plumb-line. c. fig. to give level to: to take as one's rule or


2. a. Level condition or position: horizontality.

3. Position as marked by a horizontal line; an imaginary line or plane

perpendicular to the plumb-line, considered as determining the position of one or more

points or surfaces. on a level with: in the same horizontal plane as. A (more or less)

horizontal superficies; a level or flat surface.

4. A level tract of land; a stretch of country approximately horizontal and

unbroken by elevations: applied spec. (as a proper name) to certain large expanses of

level country, e.g. Bedford Level ox the Great Level in the fen district of England; The

Levels (formerly The Level), the tract including Hatfield Chase in Yorkshire.

5. Mining. a. A nearly horizontal 'drift', passage, or gallery in a mine. b. A 'drift';

often (more fully water-level) one serving for drainage purposes.

MEANING – Of language, a sentence, word, etc.: The signification, sense,

import; a sense, interpretation. Also, the intent, spirit as apart from the 'letter'.

1. Intention, purpose, (a) a good intention, friendly disposition; (b) a 'good mind', a

strong inclination (to do something).

2. That which is intended to be or actually is expressed or indicated. a. Also, the

intent, spirit as apart from the 'letter' (of a statement, law, etc.). b. That which a

speaker or writer intends to express; the intended sense of (a person's) words.

3. Knowledge, understanding.

MOOD – 1) Any one of the several groups of forms in the conjugation of a verb

which serve to indicate the function in which the verb is used, i.e. whether it expresses

a predication, a command, a wish, or the like; that quality of a verb which depends on

the question to which of these groups its form belongs. 2) with punning reference to

MOOD n. 1

1. Logic. a. Any one of the classes into which each of the four 'figures' of valid

categorical syllogisms is subdivided on the ground of the several ways in which

syllogisms differ with regard to the quality and quantity of their constituent

propositions. b. in mood and figure: in due logical form.

2. Musical senses. a. In mediaeval music, a term used to indicate the relative

duration or time-value of certain notes to each other in the rhythm of a piece; = MODE

n.1. b. The great mood determined the relation of the 'long' to the 'large', the lesser

mood that of the 'breve' to the 'long'; each of these was called perfect when the greater

note was equal to three of the smaller, imperfect when it was equal to two. c. A written

symbol used to indicate 'mood'.

NAME – A noun.

I. 1. a. The particular combination of sounds employed as the individual

designation of a single person, animal, place, or thing. b. In Oxford and Cambridge

use, in phrases denoting that the person continues, or ceases, to be an actual member

of a college or hall. c. Stockbroking. The ticket bearing the name of the purchaser of

stock, handed over to the selling broker on name-day or ticket-day.

2. a. The particular word or words used to denote any object of thought not

considered in, or not possessed of, a purely individual character. b. A title of rank or

dignity. c. Arith. Denomination.

II. In pregnant senses, chiefly originating in Biblical uses based upon Hebrew

modes of expression.

3. The name of God or Christ, with implication of divine nature and power

inherent in it.

4. a. The name of a person (for thing) with implication of the individual denoted

by it. b. The name of a person or group of persons, with implication of all the individuals bearing, or comprehended under, it; those having a certain name; hence, a

family, clan, people.

5. a. The name of a person as mentioned by others with admiration or

commendation; hence, the fame or reputation involved in a well-known name. b. of no

name, without (a) name, implying obscurity and unimportance. c. A famous or

notorious person, a celebrity; one whose name is well known. d. An underwriter at


6. a. The reputation of some character or attribute. b. With a and adj. A fame or

reputation of a specified kind.

7. a. Without article: Repute, reputation, fame, distinction.

8. One's repute or reputation, etc.

9. a. The mere appellation in contrast or opposition to the actual person or thing;

reputation without correspondence in fact.

NOUN – 1. a. A word used as the name or designation of a person or thing. In

older grammars also including the adjective and the pronoun. b. An adjective.

NEST – A group of words of the same root.

1. a. The structure made, or the place selected, by a bird, in which to lay and

incubate its eggs, and which serves as a shelter for its unfledged young. b. A place or

structure used by animals or insects as an abode or lair, or in which their eggs, spawn,

or young are deposited. c. A malformation on a tree, so called from its outward

resemblance to a bird's nest.

2. a. A place in which a person (or personified thing) finds rest or has residence; a

lodging, shelter, home, bed, etc., esp. of a secluded or comfortable nature; a snug

retreat. b. A place in which a thing is lodged or deposited. c. A niche. d. Mil. An

emplaced group of machine-guns.

3. a. A place in which persons of a certain class (esp. thieves, robbers, or pirates)

have their usual residence or resort. b. A place or quarter in which some state of

things, quality, etc. (esp. of a bad kind), is fostered or is prevalent; a haunt of crime,

vice, etc.

4. a. A number of birds, insects, or other animals, occupying the same nest or

habitation; a brood, swarm, colony. b. A number or collection of people, esp. of the

same class or frequenting a common resort.

5. a. An accumulation or collection of similar objects. b. A number of buildings, or

of narrow streets, lying in close proximity to one another.

6. a. A set or series of similar objects, esp. of such as are contained in the same

receptacle, or are so made that each smaller one is enclosed in, or fits into, that which is

next in size to it. b. A connected series of cogwheels or pulleys.

7. a. Min. An isolated deposit of a mineral or metal occurring in the midst of other

formations. b. Path. A group of epithelial cells.

NUMBER – The property in words of denoting that one, two, or more persons or

things are spoken of; the special form of a word by which this is expressed.

I. 1. a. The precise sum or aggregate of any collection of individual things or

persons. b. pl. The title of the fourth book in the Bible, the earlier part of which

contains a census of the Israelites. c. A census or enumeration of persons.

2. A particular sum or aggregate of units, of a kind specified or implied in the


3. a. A sum or total of abstract units. b. In pl. as a subject of study or science. c. A

symbol or figure, or collection of these, which represents graphically an arithmetical

total; a ticket or label bearing such signs. d. U.S. slang. Usu. in pl. An illegal form of

gambling in which bets are taken on the occurrence of numbers in a lottery or in the

financial columns of a newspaper. e. Austral. and N.Z. Elementary arithmetic taught to

children in primary school.

4. The particular mark or symbol, having an arithmetical value, by which anything

has a place assigned to it in a series.

5. Prefixed to a numeral, as number two or No. 2, for the purpose of designating

things or persons by the place assigned to them in an arithmetical series.

6. a. A single (numbered) part or issue of a book or periodical, in numbers, in a

series of separate parts published at intervals. b. A person designated by a certain

number. c. One of a collection of songs or poems. d. A part or division of an opera, oratorio, etc. e. An item in a programme of musical entertainment. f. colloq. A person

or thing.

II. 7. a. The full tale or count of a collection, company, or class of persons. b. In

contexts denoting inclusion in the particular company or collection of persons (or

things) specified. c. The class or category of something. d. The body or aggregate of

persons specified. e. Those forming a specified class; also, the multitude, the common


8. a. A (large, small, etc.) collection or company of persons or things. b. Without

dependent genitive.

9. a. A certain (usu. a large or considerable) company, collection, or aggregate of

persons or things, not precisely reckoned or counted. b. Without dependent genitive.

c. Const. without of.

10. a. pl. A (great, infinite, etc.) multitude or aggregate of persons or things. b.

Many (persons, etc.). c. In contexts denoting superiority or power derived from

numerical preponderance.

III. 11. a. That aspect of things which is involved in considering them as separate

units of which one or more may be taken or distinguished. b. Geometrical figure. c.

Proportion or comparison. d. Phren. The faculty of numbering or calculating.

12. In phrases denoting that persons, things, etc., have not been, or cannot be,


13. A (great) collection, etc.

IV. 14. Quantity, amount.

15. Conformity, in verse or music, to a certain regular beat or measure; rhythm.

16. pl. a. Musical periods or groups of notes. b. Metrical periods or feet; hence,

lines, verses. c. A subdivision of a line.

ONSET – 1) The movement of the speech-organs preparatory to, or at the start of,

the articulation of a speech sound. 2) The initial part of a syllable; the consonant or

consonants at the beginning of a syllable.

1. a. An act of setting on or attacking (an enemy); an attack, assault. b. (Without

article.) Attack, assault. c. fig. An attack, as of an opponent in argument, etc., of

calamity or disease.

2. The action, or an act, of beginning some operation; beginning, commencement,


PARTICIPLE – A word that partakes of the nature of a verb and an adjective (or

'noun adjective'); a derivative of a verb which has the function and construction of an

adjective (qualifying a noun), while retaining some of those of the verb (e.g. tense,

government of an object); a verbal adjective. Formerly often reckoned a separate part

of speech.

1. A person, animal, or thing that partakes of the nature of two or more different


2. adj. Participating in the nature of two things or classes; belonging partly to on e

and partly to another.

PAUSE – The break marking juncture, sometimes regarded as having phonemic


1. a. An act of stopping or ceasing for a short time in a course of action, esp. in

speaking; a short interval of inaction or silence; an intermission; sometimes spec. an

intermission arising from doubt or uncertainty, a hesitation. b. (Without article.)

Intermission, delay, waiting, hesitation, suspense.

2. a. spec. One of the intermissions, stops, or breaks made, according to the sense,

in speaking or reading; in Prosody, such a break occurring according to rule at aparticular

point in a verse, a caesura; also, a break of definite length in a verse, occupying the

time of a syllable or number of syllables.

3. Mus. a. A character denoting an interval of silence; a rest. b. The character or

placed over or under a note or rest to indicate that its duration is to be lengthened


PEAK – The most prominent sound in a syllable with regard to sonority.

I. 1. a. A projecting point; a pointed or tapering extremity; a beak or bill. b. In

specific applications: The projecting front of a head-dress, formerly esp. of a widow's

hood. c. Any pointed projecting part of a garment or article of apparel. d. The point of

a beard; a pointed beard. e. The projecting part of the brim of a man's cap or the like.

f. An advancing or retreating point formed by the hair on the forehead.

2. A promontory or point of land; a headland.

II. Lace; also spec. a lace-ruff.

III. Naut. a. The narrowed extremity of a ship's hold at the bow, the FOREPEAK;

also the corresponding part at the stern, the after-peak. b. 'The upper outer corner of

those sails which are extended by a gaff; also, the upper end of a gaff. Hence gaff

peak, mizzen peak. c. The point at the end of a fluke of an anchor.

IV. Later form of PIKE, as used of a mountain.

3. a. The pointed top of a mountain; a mountain or hill having a more or less

pointed summit, or of conical form. b. fig. Highest point, summit. c. transf. The

pointed top of anything; spec. one on a graph. d. 'The high sharp ridge-bone of the

head of a setter-dog'. e. A highest point in a period of any varying quantity, as electric

power, traffic flow, prices, etc.; the time when this occurs; a culminating point or

climax. f. Surfing. The highest point of a wave.

PERSON – Each of the three classes of personal pronouns, and corresponding

distinctions in verbs, denoting or indicating respectively the person speaking (first

person), the person spoken to (second person), and the person or thing spoken of

(third person); each of the different forms or inflexions expressing these distinctions.

1. A character sustained or assumed in a drama or the like, or in actual life; part

played; hence function, office, capacity; guise, semblance; one of the characters in a

play or story.

2. a. An individual human being; a man, woman, or child. b. Emphatically, as

distinguished from a thing, or from the lower animals. c. A man or woman of

distinction or importance; a personage. d. Used contemptuously or slightingly of a

man. Also, of a woman. e. Young person: a young man or young woman, now esp.

used of the latter, when the speaker does not desire to specify her position as 'girl',

'woman', or 'lady'. f. Used (a) as a substitute for MAN n.1 as second element in

numerous Combs. relating to offices which may be held by a member of either sex, as chairperson, salesperson; (b) with preceding defining word, as marketing person,

and in other fanciful formations of this type, as henchperson. g. With defining

word, as cat person, dog person, etc.: one who is characterized by a preference or

liking for the thing specified; a lover or enthusiast.

3. In general philosophical sense: A self-conscious or rational being.

4. a. The living body of a human being; either (a) the actual body as distinct from

clothing, etc., or from the mind or soul, (b) the body with its clothing and adornment

as presented to the sight of others; bodily frame or figure. Usually with of or

possessive. b. (With qualifying adj.) A human (or quasi-human) being considered in

reference to bodily figure or appearance; a man or woman of (such and such) a figure.

5. a. The actual self or being of a man or woman; individual personality. With of

or possessive: his (own) person = himself'; your person = yourself, you person ally.

Formerly often used by way of respect: b. Expressing bodily presence or action;

presence or action 'in person'.

6. Law. a. A human being (naturalperson) or body corporate or corporation

(artificial person), having rights and duties recognized by the law. b.

Euphemistically, the genitals.

7. Theol. Applied to the three distinctions, or modes of the divine being, in the

Godhead (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) which together constitute the Trinity.

8. Zool. Each individual of a compound or 'colonial' organism, having a more or

less independent life, and often specialized in form or function; a zooid.

PITCH – That quality of a musical sound which depends on the comparative

rapidity of the vibrations producing it; degree of acuteness or graveness of tone.

I. Act or manner of pitching.

1. a. An act of setting, laying, or paying down; concr. that which is laid or thrown

down. b. An act of pitching or fixing upon a thing or place.

2. a. An act of plunging head-foremost. b. Aeronaut. and Astronautics. - PITCHIN;

also, the extent of this motion; angle of pitch, the angle between the plane containing

the lateral axis and the relative wind and that containing the lateral and longitudinal


3. The act of pitching or throwing underhand a. Cricket. The act or manner of

pitching or delivering the ball in bowling, or the way in which it pitches or alights. b.

Baseball. The act of pitching or serving the ball to the batter; the right or turn to do

this. c. Golf. The action of 'lofting' the ball up to the hole, or to the green.

4. slang. a. A talk, chat. b. Tendentious or persuasive acting or speech, esp. inflated

or exaggerated sales-talk; an instance of this, a 'line'.

II. Something that is pitched, or used for pitching.

5. A net pitched or set for catching fish.

6. A quantity of something pitched. a. The quantity of hay, etc. thrown up by a

pitchfork. b. The quantity of some particular commodity pitched or placed in a market

for sale.

7. A paving stone; esp. one set on edge, a 'sett'.

III. Place of pitching.

8. gen. The place or point at or from which something is pitched.

9. a. A place at which one stations oneself or is stationed; a portion of ground

selected by or allotted to a person for residence,' business, or any occupation; esp. a spot

in a street or other public place at which a stall for the sale or display of something is

pitched or set up, or at which a street performer, a bookmaker, etc. stations himself. b.

A place or spot in a river where an angler takes his stand.

10. Agric. and Mining. A definite portion of a field, or of a mine, allotted to a

particular workman.

11. Cricket. a. The place where the wickets are pitched; the piece of ground

between and about the wickets. b. In other outdoor games: the space on which the

game is played; the field, the ground.

12. fig. A position taken up and maintained; a fixed opinion or resolution.

IV. Highest point, height, etc.

13. The highest (or extreme) point, top, summit, apex, vertex.

14. A projecting point of some part of the body, as the shoulder, the hip.

15. The extreme point of a cape or headland, where it projects farthest into the sea.

16. a. The height to which a falcon or other bird of prey soars before swooping

down on its prey; rarely gen. the height to which any bird rises in the air. b. In directly

figurative or allusive use. c. The height to which anything rises; altitude, elevation.

17. fig. Highest or supreme point or degree; acme, climax, greatest height.

18. Height (of a person or animal), stature.

19. Height of an arched roof, or of any roof or ceiling, above the floor, or of the

vertex of an arch above the springing line.

V. Height in a figurative sense, degree.

20. a. Comparative height or intensity of any quality or attribute; point or position

on an ideal scale; degree, elevation, stage, status, level. Almost always used of a high or

intense degree.

21. a. A particular standard of pitch for voices and instruments, as concert pitch,

etc. b. transf. Applied to the degree of rapidity of vibration in light, etc., as being

analogous to musical pitch.

VI. Inclination, slope, declivity.

22. Degree of inclination to the horizon, slope; a sloping part or place. spec. a. A

downward inclination or slope (on a piece of ground or water); a steep place, declivity;

a descent, usually sloping, sometimes perpendicular. b. Mining and Geol. The

inclination of a vein of ore or seam of coal from the horizontal; the dip or rise. c. Arch.

The inclination of a sloping roof, or of the rafters, to the horizontal; the steepness of

slope of a roof; the proportion of the height of a roof to its span. d. The slope of a

flight of steps; concr. a flight of steps. e. The setting of a ploughshare to enable it to

penetrate a required depth. f. The rake or inclination of the teeth of a saw. g. The

inclination of the bit of a plane to the surface that is being planed. e. A measure of the

angle of the blades of a screw propeller, equal to the distance forward a blade would

move in one revolution if it sliced the air so as not to exert thrust on it.

POSITION – The situation of a vowel in an open or closed syllable; spec, in Gr.

and L. Prosody, the situation of a short vowel before two consonants or their

equivalent, i.e. before a consonant in the same syllable, making the syllable

metrically long, as in in-fer-ret-que, con-vex-i~= con-vec-si~.

1. The action of positing; the laying down or statement of a proposition or thesis;

affirmation, affirmative assertion. Chiefly in Logic and Philos.

2. A proposition or thesis laid down or stated; something posited; a statement,

assertion, tenet.

3. Arith. A method of finding the Value of an unknown quantity by positing or

assuming one or more values for it, finding by how much the results differ from the

actual data of the problem, and then adjusting the error.

4. The action of positing or placing, esp. in a particular order or arrangement;


5. a. The manner in which a body as a whole, or the several parts of it, are

disposed or arranged; disposition, posture, attitude. spec. (a) the disposition of the

limbs in a dance step (b) the posture adopted during sexual intercourse. b. fig. Mental

attitude; the way in which one looks upon or views a subject or question: often

passing into the point of view which one occupies in reference to a subject.

6. Mus. The arrangement of the constituent notes of a chord, with respect to their

order, or to the intervals between them.

II. 7. a. The place occupied by a thing, or in which it is put; situation, site,

station. in position, in its (his, etc.) proper or appropriate place; so out of position.

b. Mil. A site chosen for occupation by an army, usually as having a strategic value.

8. fig. a. The situation which one metaphorically occupies in relation to others, to

facts, or to circumstances; condition. b. Place in the social scale; social state or

standing; status; rank, estate, spec in social position. c. An official situation, place, or


PREFIX – A verbal element placed before and joined to a word or stem to add to

or qualify its meaning, or (in some languages) as an inflexional formative: strictly

applied only to inseparable particles, but more loosely including also combining forms,

and independent words, esp. prepositions and adverbs, used in combination All

prefixes were originally distinct words, which have been reduced to one or two syllables,

and sometimes to a single letter, as be- in be-fore, over- in over-ween, a-in a-rise, y- in yclept,

etc. a. A title prefixed to a person's name, as Mr., Dr., Sir, Rev., Hon., Lord, etc. b.

A word placed at the beginning of the registered name of a pedigree animal, esp. a dog,

to indicate the establishment in which it was bred.

The act of prefixing.

PREPOSITION – One of the Parts of Speech: an indeclinable word or particle

serving to mark the relation between two notional words, the latter of which is usually

a substantive or pronoun; as, sow in hope, good for food, one for you, Stratford on

Avon, late in time. The following n. or pron. is said to be 'governed' by the

preposition, and in inflected languages stands in an oblique case. Originally, and still

often, the term was applied also to the same words when combined as prefixes with

verbs or other words, and to certain other particles of similar force which are used

only in combination (inseparable prepositions). postpositive preposition (=

POSTPOSITION 3), a word or particle, having the same function as a preposition, which

follows its n., as 'he goes homewards'; L. 'domum versus', Ger. 'meinetwegen'. In

English, when the object is an interrogative or relative pronoun, the verb follows this

pronoun, and the preposition, instead of preceding the pronoun, often follows the verb,

as Whom did you go with? the town that he lives in, the place (that) he came from.

With the relative that no other construction is possible.

1. More widely: Any word or particle prefixed to another word; a prefix.

2. a. The action of placing before; the fact of being so placed; position before or in

front. b. Something placed before.

3. A setting forth; a proposition or exposition.

4. pl. Premises.

QUALITY – Manner of action, as denoted by an adverb; chiefly in phr. adverb

of quality.

I. Of persons (of animals).

1. a. Character, disposition, nature. b. Capacity, ability, or skill, in some respect. c.

Without article or poss. pron.: Excellence of disposition; good natural gifts.

2. a. A mental or moral attribute, trait, or characteristic; a feature of one's

character; a habit. b. An accomplishment or attainment. c. Law. A special or

characteristic feature.

3. a. Rank or position in. (a) society. b. concr. A body of persons of a certain rank.

4. a. Nobility, high birth or rank, good social position. b. concr. People of good

social position.

5. a. Profession, occupation, business, esp. that of an actor. b. Fraternity; those of

the same profession; esp. actors as a body. c. Party, side.

6. a. Title, description, character, capacity. b. A part or character (acted).

II. Of things.

7. a. An attribute, property, special feature or characteristic. b. A manner, style. c.

A habit; a power or faculty. d. Concretely: A substance of a certain nature; an essence.

8. a. The nature, kind, or character (of something). Now restricted to cases in

which there is comparison (expressed or implied) with other things of the same kind;

hence, the degree or grade of excellence, etc. possessed by a thing. b. Nature, with

reference to origin; hence, cause, occasion. c. ellipt. for quality newspaper.

9. Without article: a. That aspect of things under which they are considered in

thinking or speaking of their nature, condition, or properties. b. Peculiar excellence or


10. In special uses: a. Logic. Of propositions: The condition of being affirmative or

negative. Of concepts: Comparative clearness or distinctness. b. Law. Of an estate:

The manner in which it is to be held or enjoyed. c. Physics. That which distinguishes

sounds quantitatively the same; timbre. d. Engin. The proportion by weight of vapour

in a mixture of vapour and the parent liquid. e. Radiology. The penetrating power of a

beam of X-rays. f. The degree to which reproduced sound resembles the original;


11. A particular class, kind, or grade of anything, as determined by its quality.

QUANTITY – Length or shortness of sounds or syllables, determined by the

time required to pronounce them. Chiefly used with reference to Greek and Latin

verse, in which the metres are based on quantity.

1. a. Size, magnitude, dimensions. In widest sense implying magnitude in three

dimensions, but sometimes contextually limited to (a) thickness or stoutness, (b)

extent of surface, area, (c) linear extension, length, height. b. A dimension. c. An

amount equal to the volume of.

2. Amount, sum. a. Of material things not subject to, or not usually estimated by,

spatial measurement. b. Of immaterial things. c. Of money, payment, etc. d.

Number, numbers.

3. a. Length or duration in time. Now only in the legal phrase quantity of estate,

the length of time during which the right of enjoyment of an estate is to continue. b.

Mus. Length or duration of notes. In the most abstract sense, esp. as the subject of

mathematics: That property of things which is involved in the questions 'how great?'

or 'how much?' and is determinable, or regarded as being so, by measurement of some


4. Logic. a. The extension or intension of a term, distinguished as extensive and

intensive quantity. b. The degree of extension which a proposition gives to the term

forming its subject, and according to which it is said to be universal, particular, singular,

and indefinite ox indeterminate.

5. Relative or proportional size or amount, proportion.

6. Great or considerable amount or bulk.

II. 7. a. A (specified) portion or amount of an article or commodity. b. An

indefinite (usually a fair or considerable) portion or amount; a small piece, fragment. c.

With def. article: The portion or amount (of something) present in a particular thing

or instance.

8. A specified, or indefinite, number of persons or things.

9. A certain space or surface; a portion of something having superficial extent.

10. Math. A tiling having quantity; a figure or symbol standing for such a thing.

RISE – An increase of pitch in a tone or voice.

I. 1. The act, on the part of a hare, of finally rising to return to its form.

2. a. A spring or bound upwards; esp. one made with the help of a run at the outset

of a long leap. b. A start or aid towards rising in a leap; a place from which to rise or


3. The coming of the sun (moon, or planets) above the horizon; hence also, the

region of sunrise, the east.

4. a. Upward movement; ascent; transference to a higher level. b. Capacity for or

power of rising. c. Cricket. The upward movement of a ball after pitching. d. Theatr.

The raising of the curtain at the beginning of a scene.

5. a. Elevation in fortune or rank. b. An occasion or means of rising (in fortune or

rank). c. Upward course; advance towards a flourishing or prosperous condition, etc.

6. Angling. The movement of a fish to the surface of the water to take a fly or bait;

an instance of this.

7. The act of rising from the dead, or from some condition.

8. A revolt, rising.

II. 9. a. A piece of rising grounds a hill. b. A long, broad, gently sloping elevation

rising from the sea bed, esp. that at the edge of a continental shelf.

10. a. An upward slope or direction, esp. of strata, coal-beds, veins of ore, etc. b.

Mining. An excavation or working on the up side of a shaft.

11. a. The vertical height of a step, an arch, an inclined surface or object, etc.,

measured from the base or springing-line to the highest point. b. The pitch of a screw.

12. A flight of steps.

III. 13. An increase in height of the sea, streams, or water, by tides, floods, etc., or

of a liquid in a vessel; the amount of this increase.

14. a. An increase in amount. b. An advance in wages or salary.

15. An increase in the value or price of a thing.

IV. 16. An origin or source; a beginning; a start.

17. An occasion; a ground or basis.

18. The act of coming into existence or notice.

ROOT – One of those ultimate elements of a language, that cannot be further

analysed, and form the base of its vocabulary; a primary word or form from which

others are derived.

1. That part of a plant or tree which is normally below the earth's surface; in Bar.,

the descending axis of a plant, tree, or shoot, developed from the radicle, and serving to

attach the plant to and convey nourishment from the soil, with or without subsidiary

rootlets or fibres.

2. The permanent underground stock of a plant from which the stems or leaves are

periodically produced.

3. a. The underground part of a plant used for eating or in medicine; now spec. in

Agric., one of a fleshy nature, as the turnip or carrot, and by extension, any plant of

this kind. b. With defining words c. U.S. dial. A spell effected by the supposedly

magical properties of certain roots.

4. a. The imbedded or basal portion of the hair, tongue, teeth, fingers, nails, or

other members or structures of the body. b. The more or less 'muddy' base of a crystal

or gem, esp. of an emerald. c. That part of anything by or at which it is united to

something else.

5. a. The bottom or base of something material; esp. the foot of a hill. b. The

bottom of the groove of a screw thread.

II. 6. a. The source or origin of some quality, condition, tendency, etc. b.

Predicated of persons or material things.

7. a. A source of some quality, etc.; esp. a virtue or vice giving rise to some.

8. a. A person or family forming the source of a lineage, kindred, or line of

descendants. b. A scion, offshoot.

9. a. That upon or by which a person or thing is established or supported; the

basis upon which anything rests. b. Of qualities, esp. with reference to their hold upon


10. a. The bottom or real basis, the inner or essential part, of anything. b. The

bottom of the heart, in various figurative uses.

11. Math. a. A number, quantity, or dimension, which, when multiplied by itself a

requisite number of times, produces a given expression. b. The value or values of an

unknown quantity which will satisfy a given equation. c. A unique node or vertex of a

graph from which every other node can be reached.

12. a. Miscellaneous senses of uncertain affinity. b. Austral. coarse slang. An act of

sexual intercourse.

RULE – A principle regulating or determining the form or position of words in a

sentence. In modern Linguistics, usu. applied to any one of a system of rules that

can be formulated in such a way that together they describe all the features of a


I. 1. a. A principle, regulation, or maxim governing individual conduct. b. Const. of

some quality or principle. c. transf: Applied to a person or thing.

2. The code of discipline or body of regulations observed by a religious order or


3. a. A principle regulating practice or procedure; a fixed and dominating custom

or habit. b. A regulation determining the methods or course of a game or the like

4. Law. a. An order made by a judge or court, the application of which is limited to

the case in connexion with which it is granted. b. A formal order or regulation

governing the procedure or decisions of a court of law; an enunciation or doctrine

forming part of the common law, or having the force of law.

5. a. A regulation framed or adopted by a corporate body, public or private, for

governing its conduct and that pf its members. b. Rules Committee, a committee of a

house of a U.S. federal or state legislature responsible for expediting the passage of

bills. c. Followed by a number or letter: a particular regulation imposed by an


6. a. the rules, a defined area in the neighbourhood of certain prisons, esp. those of

the Fleet and King's Bench, within which certain prisoners, esp. debtors, were

permitted to live on giving proper security. b. The freedom of these bounds or 'rules'.

on rule, allowed to live in the rules.

II. 7. a. A principle regulating the procedure or method necessary to be observed.

b. Coupled with the name of the discoverer or expounder.

Math. A prescribed method or process for finding unknown numbers or values, or

solving particular problems.

8. Without article in preceding senses.

III. 9. A standard of discrimination or estimation; a criterion, test, canon.

10. A fact (or the statement of one) which holds generally good; that which is

normally the case.

IV. 11. good (or right) rule, good order and discipline; a settled, well-regulated

state or condition.

12. a. Conduct, behaviour, manner of acting. b. Breeding, upbringing. c. Misrule,

disorder, stir, riot.

13. Control, government, sway, dominion.

14. The control or government of a person or thing.

15. The control, management, government, etc. of something.

V. 16. a. A graduated strip of metal or wood (marked with feet, inches, etc.) used

for measuring length, esp. by carpenters and masons. b. Without article, freq. coupled

with line or measure.

17. a. Array, marshalled order or line.

18. A straight line drawn on paper, esp. for the writing of music.

19. Typog. a. A thin slip of metal (usually brass) used for separating headings,

columns of type, articles, etc., and in ornamental work; also a dash short or long in

type-metal, thus - (en rule) or thus - (em rule), used in punctuation, etc. b. Without

article (brass rule), as a material. c. A composing- or setting-rule.

SENTENCE – The verbal expression of a proposition, question, command, оr

request, containing normally a subject and a predicate (though either of these may

be omitted by ellipsis). In grammatical use, though not in popular language, a

'sentence' may consist оf a single word, as in L. algeo 'I am cold', where the subject

(= I) is expressed bу the ending of the verb. English grammarians usually recognize

three classes: simple sentences, complex sentences (which contain one or more

subordinate clauses), and compound sentences (which have more than one subject

or predicate).

1. Way of thinking, opinion.

2. The opinion pronounced by a person on some particular question, usually, one

on which he is consulted or which is being deliberated upon.

3. An authoritative decision; a judgement pronounced by a tribunal. a. spec. =sentence of excommunication. b. gen. The judgement or decision of a court in any civil

or criminal cause. c. The judicial determination of the punishment to be inflicted on a

convicted criminal.

4. a. A quoted saying of some eminent person. b. In generalized use: Aphoristic

speech, sententiousness.

5. An indefinite portion of a discourse or writing; a 'passage'.

6. a. A series of words in connected speech or writing, forming the grammatically

complete expression of a single thought; in popular use often, such a portion of a

composition or utterance as extends from one full stop to another. b. Music. A

complete idea, usually consisting of two or four phrases. c. Logic. A correctly ordered

series of signs or symbols that expresses a proposition in an artificial or logical


7. The thought or meaning expressed, as distinguished from the wording; the

sense, substance, or gist (of a passage, a book, etc.).

8. Intelligence, insight, sound judgement.

SERIES – 1) In the Indogermanic languages, a set of vowels, or of diphthongs

and vowels or sonants, which are mutually related by ablaut. 2) A number of

consonantal phonemes characterized by one and the same articulation will be said

to form a 'series' if their other characteristic articulations can be located at different

points along the air channel.

I. General senses. 1. A number or set of material things of one kind ranged in a

line, either contiguously or at more or less regular intervals; a range or continued

spatial succession of similar objects; fin early use applied to a row of building.

2. a. A number of things of one kind (chiefly immaterial, as events, actions,

conditions, periods of time) following one another in temporal succession, or in the

order of discourse or reasoning. b. A number of persons in succession holding the

same office or having some characteristic in common. c. A catalogue, list.

3. a. A succession, sequence, or continued course. b. A continued state or spell.

4. The connected sequence.

5. Order of succession; sequence.

6. A number of magnitudes, degrees of some attribute, or the like, viewed as

capable of being enumerated in a progressive order.

II. Technical senses.

7. Math. A set of terms in succession (finite or infinite in number) the value of

each of which is determined by its ordinal position according to a definite rule known

as the law of the series.

8. A set of coins, medals, etc. belonging to a particular epoch, locality, dynasty, or


9. a. A set of literary compositions having certain features in common, published

successively or intended to be read in sequence; a succession of volumes or fascicules

(of a periodical, the publications of a society, etc.) forming a set by itself. b. A set of

radio or television programmes concerned with the same theme or having the same

range of characters and broadcast in sequence.

10. Nat. Sci. A group of individuals exhibiting similar characteristics or a constant

relation between successive members.

11. Geol. a. A set of successive deposits or group of successive formations having

certain common fossil or mineral features. Also used for any assemblage of successive,

usu. conformable, strata. b. Any group of rocks having similar forms of occurrence and

petrographical characteristics.

12. Electr. and Magn. A number of wires of different metals each connected with

the preceding. Chiefly as in series: in Electr. also said of circuit components connected

together so as to form a single electrical path between two points.

13. A parcel of rough diamonds of assorted qualities.

14. Chem. A set of related elements or compounds, esp. a group or period of the

periodic table, or a number of compounds differing successively in composition by a

fixed amount.

15. A set of alloys or minerals having the same chemical composition except for the

relative proportions of two elements that can replace one another.

16. a. Baseball. A set of games played on successive days between two teams. b.

Cricket. A set of Test matches between two: sides on any one tour.

17. Physics. A set of lines in a spectrum whose frequencies are mathematically

related in a fairly simple way.

18. Soil Sci. A group of soils which are derived from the same parent material and

are similar in profile, though not necessarily in the texture of the surface horizon.

19. Mus. The arrangement of the twelve-tone chromatic scale which is used as the

starting-point of a piece of SERIAL music.

20. Eccl. With a specifying number: a designation of one of the alternative

experimental forms of service used within the Church of England since 1965. These

rites were replaced in 1980 by those printed in the Alternative Service Book.

STYLE – Writing; manner of writing (hence also of speaking).

I. Stylus, pin, stalk.

1. a. Antiq. An instrument made of metal, bone, etc., having one end sharppointed

for incising letters on a wax tablet, and the other flat and broad for smoothing

the tablet and erasing what is written. b. Used as a weapon of offence, for stabbing, etc.

c. fig., or as a symbol of literary composition.

2. An engraving-tool; a graver.

3. A pointed instrument used for marking.

4. Surg. A blunt-pointed probe.

5. A hard point for tracing, in manifold writing; the marking-point in a telegraph or


6. gen. A fixed pointer, pin, or finger for indicating a point or position.

7. a. The pin, rod, or triangular plate which forms the gnomon of a sun-dial. b.

defined as a line.

8. Bot. A narrowed prolongation of the ovary, which, when present, supports the

stigma at its apex.

9. But. a. A slender bristle-like process in the anal region. b. The bristle or seta of

the antenna of a dipter.

10. Zool. a. A small slender pointed process or part; a stylet. b. A sponge-spicule

pointed at one end.

11. A post, stake.

12. a. A written work or works; literary composition. b. An inscription or legend. c.

An entry, clause, or section in a legal document.

13. a. The manner of expression characteristic of a particular writer, or of a literary

group or period; a writer's mode of expression considered in regard to clearness,

effectiveness, beauty, and the like. b. Used for: A good, choice or fine style.

14. In generalized sense: Those features of literary composition which belong to

form and expression rather than to the substance of the thought or matter expressed.

15. A manner of discourse, or tone of speaking, adopted in addressing others or in

ordinary conversation. A form of words, phrase, or formula, by which a particular idea

or thought is expressed.

16. a. Scots Law. The authorized form for drawing up a deed or instrument. b. In

generalized sense: Legal technicality of language or construction.

17. a. A legal, official, or honorific title; the proper name or recognized appellation

of a person, family, trading firm, etc.; the ceremonial designation of a sovereign,

including his various titles and the enumeration of his dominions. b. gen. Any

distinguishing or qualifying title, appellation, or denomination.

III. Manner, fashion.

18. a. A method or custom of performing actions or functions, esp. one sanctioned

by usage or law. b. A particular manner of life or behaviour. c. Outward demeanour.

19. Condition with regard to external circumstances.

20. a. A particular mode or form of skilled construction, execution, or production;

the manner in which a work of art is executed, regarded as characteristic of the

individual artist, or of his time and place; one of the modes recognized in a particular

art as suitable for the production of beautiful or skilful work. b. In generalized sense.

Often used for: Beauty or loftiness of style. c. A definite type of architecture,

distinguished by special characteristics of structure or ornamentation. d. Printing. The

rules and methods, in regard to typography, display, etc., observed in a particular


21. a. A kind, sort, or type, as determined by manner of composition or

construction, or by outward appearance. b. transf. Said predicatively of a person or thing: What suits (a person's) taste; the 'sort' that (a person or set of persons) would

choose or approve.

22. a. Manner of executing a task or performing an action or operation. b. Used

for: Good or fine style.

23. a. A mode of deportment or behaviour; a mode or fashion of life, esp. in regard

to expense, display, etc. b. Used for: Fashionable air, appearance, deportment, etc.

24. A particular mode or fashion of costume.

25. A person's characteristic bearing, demeanour, or manner.

IV. 26. A mode of expressing dates.

SUBJECT – The member or part of a sentence denoting that concerning which

something is predicated (i.e. of which a statement is made, a question asked, or a

desire expressed); a word or group of words setting forth that which is spoken about

and constituting the 'nominative' to a finite verb.

I. 1. a. One who is under the dominion of a monarch or reigning prince; one who

owes allegiance to a government or ruling power, is subject to its laws, and enjoys

its protection. b. collect. sing. The subjects of a realm.

2. a. One who is bound to a superior by an obligation to pay allegiance, service,

or tribute; spec. a feudal inferior or tenant; a vassal, retainer; a dependant,

subordinate; an inferior. b. One who owes allegiance or obedience to a spiritual

superior. c. One who is under the spiritual oversight or charge of a parish priest; one

of a 'curate's' parishioners.

3. a. A person (rarely, a thing) that is in the control or under the dominion of

another; one who owes obedience to another.

4. Law. a. A thing over which a right is exercised. b. Sc. A piece of property. c.

Considered as the object of an agreement.

II. 5. The substance of which a thing consists or from which it is made.

6. Philos. a.The substance in which accidents or attributes inhere. b. A thing

having real independent existence.

7. Logic. a. That which has attributes; the thing about which a judgement is

made. b. The term or part of a proposition of which the predicate is affirmed or


8. Modern Philos. The mind, as the 'subject' in which ideas inhere; that to

which all mental representations or operations are attributed; the thinking or

cognizing agent; the self or ego.

III. 9. The subject-matter of an art or science.

10. a. A thing affording matter for action of a specified kind; a ground, motive,

or cause. b. That which can be drawn upon or utilized, means of doing something,

11. a. That which is or may be acted or operated upon; a person or thing

towards which action or influence is directed, or that is the recipient of some

treatment. b. Const. of a specified action or activity. c. One who or a thing which is

subject to something injurious. d. An object with which a person's occupation or

business is concerned or on which he exercises his craft. e. A body used for

anatomical examination or demonstration. f. A person who presents himself for or

undergoes medical or surgical treatment; hence, one who is affected with some

disease. g. Psychical Research. A person upon whom an experiment is made. h. A

person under the influence of religious enthusiasm. i. With epithet: A person in

respect of his conduct or character.

12. a. In a specialized sense: That which forms or is chosen as the matter of

thought, consideration, or inquiry; a topic, theme. b. With appositional phr. formed

with of and expressing the nature of the subject. c. An object of study in relation to

its use for pedagogic or examining purposes; a particular department of art or

science in which one is instructed or examined.

13. a. The theme of a literary composition; what a book, poem, etc. is about. b.

The person of whom a biography is written.

14. a. An object, a figure or group of figures, a scene, an incident, etc., chosen

by an artist for representation. b. In decorative art, a representation of human

figures or animals, an action or incident.

15. Mus. The theme or principal phrase of a composition or movement; in a

figure, the exposition, dux, or proposition.

16. That upon which something stands; a base.

SUBSTITUTION – 1) Syllepsis: a figure by which a word, or a particular form or

inflection of a word, is made to refer to two or more other words in the same sentence,

while properly applying to or agreeing with only one of them (e.g. a masc. adj.

qualifying two ns., masc. and fem.; a sing. verb serving as predicate to two subjects,

sing. and pl.), or applying to them in different senses (e.g. literal and metaphorical). 2)

A sound-change consisting in the replacement of one vowel or consonant by another.

1. a. The appointment of a deputy (or successor); deputation, delegation. b. A

write appointing a deputy official.

2. a. The putting of one person or thing in place of another. b. With reference to

the principle in religious sacrifices of replacing one kind of victim by another or a

bloody by an unbloody offering; esp. in Christian Theol. used to designate a doctrine of

the Atonement according to which Jesus Christ suffered punishment vicariously for


3. Law. The designation of a person or series of persons to succeed as heir or heirs

on the failure of a person or persons previously named.

4. Alg. a. The method of replacing one algebraic quantity by another of equal

value but differently expressed. b. The operation of passing from the primitive

arrangement of n letters to any other arrangement of the same letters.

5. Chem. The replacement of one or more equivalents of an element or radical, by a

like number of equivalents of another.

6. Biol. The replacement of one organ or function by another.

7. Trade. The dishonest replacement of one article of commerce by another; the

passing off of one manufacturer's goods for another's.

8. gen. Replacement ( of one thing) by another.

TENSE – Any one of the different forms or modifications (or word-groups) in

the conjugation of a verb which indicate the different times (past, present, or future)

at which the action or state denoted by it is viewed as happening or existing, and also

 (by extension) the different nature of such action or state, as continuing (imperfect)

or completed (perfect); also abstr. that quality of a verb which depends on the

expression of such differences.


THEME – That part of a sentence which indicates what is being talked about.

1. a. The subject of discourse, discussion, conversation, meditation, or composition;

a topic. b. transf. A subject treated by action. c. Logic. That which is the subject of

thought. spec. The text of a sermon; also, a proposition to be discussed.

2. An exercise written on a given subject.

3. Mus. The principal melody, plainsong, or canto fermo in a contrapuntal piece;

hence, any one of the principal melodies or motives in a sonata, symphony, etc.; a


4. Astrol. The disposition of the heavenly bodies at a particular time, as at the

moment of a person's birth.

5. Anc. Hist. Each of the twenty-nine provinces into which the Byzantine empire

was divided.

TIME – TENSE n. 2.

I. A space or extent of time.

1. a. A limited stretch or space of continued existence, as the interval between two

successive events or acts, or the period through which an action, condition, or state

continues; a finite portion of 'time' b. (a) The space of an hour (b) A space of time,

generally understood to mean a year.

2. A particular period indicated or characterized in some way.

3. a. A period in the existence or history of the world; an age, an era. In later use

more indefinite.

4. With possessive or of: The period contemporary with the life, occupancy, or

activity of some one; (his) age, era, or generation.

5. a. A period considered with reference to its prevailing conditions; the general

state of affairs at a particular period. b. pl. Used as the name of a news paper.

6. Period of duration; prescribed or allotted term. a. Period of existence or action;

period of one's life, life-time. b. spec. (a) The period of gestation. (b) The menstrual

period; transf. menstruation. (c) (One's) term of apprenticeship. (d) The duration of a

term of imprisonment; (e) An unexpired period of compulsory service (U.S.). (f) The

prescribed duration of the interval between two rounds in boxing, or of a round or

game in athletics, football, etc., or the moment at which this begins or ends. (g) The

periodic time of a heavenly body: (h) The prescribed duration of opening-hours at a

public house; the moment at which this ends.

7. a. The length of time sufficient, necessary, or desired for some purpose; also,

time available for employment; leisure or spare time. b. The (shortest) period in which

a given course of action is completed.

8. spec. The amount of time worked under a specific contract; hence, in

workmen's speech, pay equivalent to the period worked; also an account or

certificate showing the days, hours, etc. worked, and wages due: usually called-back


9. Anc. Prosody. A unit or group of units in metrical measurement.

10. Mil. The rate of marching, calculated on the number of paces taken per


11. Music. a. The duration of the breve in relation to the semibreve; hence, the

rhythm or measure of a piece of music, now marked by division of the music into bars,

and usually denoted by a fraction expressing the number of aliquot parts of a

semibreve in each bar. b. The rate at which a piece is performed; the tempo; hence, the

characteristic tempo, rhythm, form, and style of a particular class of compositions

(usually in combination, as dance-time, march-time, waltz-time). c. The time-value

or duration of a note.

II. Time when: a point of time; a space of time treated without reference to its


12. a. A point in the course of time or of a period: b. A season or part of the year

considered with reference to the weather experienced; weather (of some kind). c. Stock

Exch. The account.

13. A point in duration marking or marked by some event or condition; a point of

time at which something happens, an occasion.

14. The appointed, due, or proper time.

15. A or the favourable, convenient, or fitting point of time for doing something;

the right moment or occasion; opportunity.

16. Any one of the occasions on which something is done or happens; each

occasion of a recurring action.

17. a. Preceded by a cardinal numeral and followed by a number or expression of

quantity: used to express the multiplication of the number, etc. b. Also followed by an

adj. or adv. in the comparative degree, or in the positive by as (formerly so) with an adj.

or adv., expressing comparison.

18. Manege. Applied to each completed motion or action.

19. pl. Originally The fixed hours of the day at which an omnibus started from its

various stations; hence, the established business enterprise of running an omnibus on a

given route at such times, and the 'good-will' thus created by the owners of public

service vehicles over particular routes, as a recognized vendible asset.

III. In generalized sense.

20. a. Indefinite continuous duration regarded as that in which the sequence of

events takes place. b. Attempts to define or explain.

21. In restricted sense, Duration conceived as beginning and ending with the

present life or material universe; finite duration as distinct from eternity.

22. A system of measuring or reckoning the passage of time.

TONE – 1) A word-accent; a rising, falling, or compound inflexion, by which

words otherwise of the same sound are distinguished, as in ancient Greek, modern

Chinese, and other languages. 2) The stress accent (Fr. accent tonique) on a syllable

of a word; the stressed or accented syllable.

I. 1. a. A musical or vocal sound considered with reference to its quality, as acute

or grave, sweet or harsh, loud or soft, clear or dull. b. Quality of sound.

2. a. Mus. and Acoustics. A sound of definite pitch and character produced by

regular vibration of a sounding body; a musical note. b. Pitch of a musical note;

correct pitch, 'tune'.

3. Mus. a. In plainsong, any of the nine psalm-tunes (including the peregrine

tone), each of which has a particular 'intonation' and 'mediation' and a number of

different 'endings'; commonly called Gregorian tones. b. Applied to the

ecclesiastical modes (in which the Gregorian tones were composed).

4. a. Mus. One of the larger intervals between successive notes of the diatonic

scale; a major second; sometimes called whole tone, as opposed to semitone. b. transf.

Applied to the space between planets.

5. a. A particular quality, pitch, modulation, or inflexion of the voice expressing or

indicating affirmation, interrogation, hesitation, decision, or some feeling or emotion;

vocal expression. b. The distinctive quality of voice in the pronunciation of words,

peculiar to an individual, locality, or nation; an 'accent'. c. Intonation; esp. a special,

affected, or artificial intonation in speaking. d. transf. A particular style in discourse or

writing, which expresses the person's sentiment or reveals his character.

II. 6. Physiol. The degree of firmness or tension proper to the organs or tissues of

the body in a strong and healthy condition.

7. A state or temper of mind; mood, disposition.

8. A special or characteristic style or tendency of thought, feeling, behaviour, etc.;

spirit, character, tenor; esp. the general or prevailing state of morals or manners in a

society or community.

III. 9. a. The prevailing effect of the combination of light and shade, and of the

general scheme of colouring, in a painting, building, etc. b. A quality of colour; a tint;

spec. the degree of luminosity of a colour; shade.

TRANSITION – The historical passage of language from one well-defined stage

to another; e.g. from Old English or Anglo-Saxon to Middle English; or from

Middle English to Modern English; hence applied to the interval occupied by this,

and t о the intermediate or transitional stage or form of the language during this


1. a. A passing or passage from one condition, action, or place, to another; change.

b. Physics. A change of an atomic nucleus or an orbital electron from one quantitized

state to another, with the emission or absorption of radiation of a characteristic


2. Passage in thought, speech, or writing from one subject to another.

3. Mus. a. The passing from one note to another by means of a passing-note. b.

The passing from one key to another, modulation; spec. a passing or brief modulation;

also, modulation into a remote key.

4. The passage from an earlier to a later stage of development or formation. a.

Geol. Formerly spec. applied attrib. to certain early stratified rocks believed to contain

the oldest remains of living organisms; now classified as Silurian. b. Arch . Change

from an earlier style to a later; a style of intermediate or mixed character.

5. Molecular Biol. The occurrence in a nucleic acid of one purine in place of

another, or of one pyramidine in place of another.

TREE – A set of items that can be represented by a diagram.

1. a. A perennial plant having a self-supporting woody main stem or trunk (which

usually develops woody branches at some distance from the ground), and growing to a

considerable height and size. b. Extended to include bushes or shrubs of erect growth

and haying a single stem; and even some perennial herbaceous plants which grow to a

great height, as the banana and plantain. c. Applied fig. or allusively to a person.

2. The substance of the trunk and boughs of a tree; wood; timber.

3. A piece of wood; a stem or branch of a tree, or a portion of one, either in its

natural state, or more usually shaped for some purpose. a. A pole, post, stake, beam,

wooden bar, etc.; one forming part of some structure, as a vehicle, plough, ship, etc.;

usually as the second element in combinations. b. A stick, esp. a staff, cudgel.

4. The cross on which Christ was crucified, the holy rood.

5. a. The wooden shaft of a spear, handle of an implement, etc.; hence, a spear,

lance. b. A wooden structure; applied poet. or rhet. to a ship. c. A wooden vessel;

barrel, cask, 'the wood'. Sc. d. The framework of a saddle. e. A block upon which a

boot is shaped or stretched. Something resembling a tree with its branches.

6. a. A diagram or table of a family, indicating its original ancestor as the root, and

the various branches of descendants. b. Any structure or figure, natural or artificial, of

branched form.

VOICE – 1) The form of a verb by which the relation of the subject to the action

implied is indicated; one or other of the modes of inflecting or varying a verb

according to the distinctions of active, passive, or middle. 2) Sound uttered with

vibration or resonance of the vocal chords.

I. 1. Sound, or the whole body of sounds, made or produced by the vocal organs of

man or animals in their natural action; esp. sound formed in or emitted from the

human larynx in speaking, singing, or other utterance; vocal sound as the vehicle of

human utterance or expression. a. With the, or with limiting terms as man's, b.

Without article. Occas. put for 'musical voice', 'power of singing'. c. The sound of

voices. d. Utterance or expression (of feeling, etc.).

2. a. The supremacy or upper hand in a struggle. b. The right or privilege of

speaking or voting in a legislative assembly, or of taking part in, or exercising control or

influence over, some particular matter; part or share in the control, government, or

deciding of something.

3. a. The expressed opinion, judgement, will, or wish of the people, a number of

persons, a corporate body, etc., occas. as indicated or shown by the exercise of the


II. Without of. Now usually with defining adj., as general, popular, public, prefixed


4. a. That which is generally or commonly said; general or common talk; rumour

or report. b. A piece of common or general talk; a report or rumour. c. Fame or

renown of something.

III. 5. In limited sense: The sounds naturally made by a single person or animal in

speech or other form of vocal utterance; these sounds regarded as characteristic of the

person and as distinguishing him from another or others. a. In usages where this sound

is taken to represent the person or being who utters it, or is regarded apart from the

utterer. b. With adjs. denoting the quality or tone. c. Used in reference to the

expression of opinion or protest, or the issuing of a command.

6. a. The sound of prayer, etc. b. transf. A sound or sounds produced or emitted

by something inanimate, as (a) a stream, thunder, the wind, etc., or musical


7. A word or number of words uttered or expressed in speech; a phrase, sentence,

or speech; a discourse or report.

8. An expression of opinion, choice, or preference uttered or given by a person; a

single vote, esp. one given in the election of a person to some office or position or on a

matter coming for decision before a deliberative assembly.

9. The vocal capacity of one person in respect of its employment for musical

purposes, esp. in combination with others; a person considered as the possessor of a

voice so employed; a singer.

10. The agency or means by which something specified is expressed; represented, or


UNIT – A member of a set of linguistic units.

1. a. Math. A single magnitude or number regarded as an undivided whole and as

the ultimate base of all number; spec. in Arithmetic, the least whole number; the

numeral 'one', represented by the figure 1. b. Any determinate quantity, dimension,

or magnitude adopted as a basis or standard of measurement for other quantities of

the same kind and in terms of which their magnitude is calculated or expressed. c. A

substance adopted as a standard by which the specific gravity of various bodies is

estimated. d. A basic measure of educational attainment credited to a student for

completing the number of hours of study assigned to one section of an academic

course. e. The standard unit of quantity by which bread and petrol were rationed

during and immediately after the war of 1939-45; a coupon of this value.

2. a. A single individual or thing regarded as a member of a group or number of

things or individuals, or discriminated from these as having a separate existence; one

of the separate parts or members of which a complex whole or aggregate is composed

or into which it may be analysed. b. That division or section of a collective body or whole which is regarded as the lowest or least to have a distinctive existence; such a

division or group of individuals considered as a basis of formation or administration. c.

In military or naval use. d. A group of buildings, wards, etc., in a hospital; spec. one

equipped to provide a particular type of health care. e. A piece of (esp. storage)

furniture or equipment which may be fitted with other pieces to form a larger system,

or which is itself composed of smaller complementary parts. f. An accommodation

unit in a larger building or group of buildings, esp. in a block of flats or a motel.

WRITING – The action of composing and committing to manuscript;

expression of thought s or ideas in written words; literary composition or


I. 1. a. The action of one who writes, in various senses; the penning or forming of

letters or words; the using of written characters for purposes of record, transmission of

ideas, etc.

2. a. The art or practice of penmanship or handwriting. b. Style, form, or method

of fashioning letters or other conventional signs; the 'hand' of a particular person. c.

The occupation of a (professional) writer.

3. Manner of setting down in written form; spelling, orthography.

4. The state or condition of having been written or penned; written form.

II. 5. That which is in a written state or form; something penned or recorded;

written information, composition, or production; literary work or compilation.

6. a. A written composition; freq. pl., the work or works of an author or group of

authors; literary productions. b. A musical composition.

7. a. A written document, note, etc.; a letter or missive. b. A written paper or

instrument, having force in law; a deed, bond agreement, or the like; a document

relative to a marriage contract or settlement. c. A writ of divorce, etc.

8. Wording or lettering scored, engraved, or impressed on a surface; an inscription.

9. Words, letters, etc., embodied in written (or typewritten) form; written lettering.