Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Relationship- /content-driven

Relationship-driven learners are typically strong in personal intelligence; they learn

best when they like and trust the presenter. "WHO delivers the information is more

important than WHAT the information is" (Jensen 1995a: 134). Relationship-driven

learners will learn poorly from teachers they dislike or mistrust; with them, teachers

will need to devote time and energy to building an atmosphere of mutual trust

and respect before attempting to teach a subject; and these learners will typically

take teaching and learning to be primarily a matter of communication, dialogue,

the exchange of ideas and feelings, only secondarily the transmission of inert facts.

Relationship-driven language-learners tend also to be field-dependent, and learn

foreign languages best in the countries where they are natively spoken; and there

prefer to learn from a close friend or group of friends, or from a spouse or family.

The focus on "people" and "working people" in Chapters 6 and 7 of this book will

be especially crucial for this sort of learner. Relationship-driven translators often

become interpreters, so that cross-cultural communication is always in a context of

interpersonal relationship as well. When they work with written texts, they like to

know the source-language writer and even the target-language end-user personally;

like interdependent translators, they love to collaborate on translations, preferably

with the writer and various other experts and resource people present. Relationshipdriven

freelancers imagine themselves in personal interaction with the sourcelanguage

writer and target-language reader. It will feel essential to them to see the

writer's face in their mind's eye, to hear the writer speaking the text in their mind's

ear; to feel the rhythms and the tonalizations of the source text as the writer's

personal speech to them, and of the target text as their personal speech to the reader.

Robinson (1991) addresses an explicitly relationship-driven theory of translation as

embodied dialogue.

Content-driven learners are typically stronger in linguistic and logical/mathematic

than in personal intelligence; they focus most fruitfully on the information content of a written or spoken text. Learning is dependent on the effective presentation of

information, not on the learner's feelings about the presenter. Content-driven

language-learners prefer to learn a foreign language as a logical syntactic, semantic,

and pragmatic system; content-driven student translators prefer to learn about

translation through rules, precepts, and systems diagrams (deduction: see Chapter

4). Content-driven translators focus their attention on specialized terms and

terminologies and the object worlds they represent; syntactic structures and crosslinguistic

transfer patterns; stylistic registers and their equivalencies across linguistic

barriers. Content-driven translation theorists tend to gravitate toward linguistics in

all its forms, descriptive translation studies, and systematic cultural studies.