Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я


It makes a great deal of difference to learners where they learn — what sort of physical

and social environment they inhabit while learning. Some different variables, as

presented in Jensen (1995a: 134—8), are discussed below.

Field-depen den t /in depen den t

Just how heavily do you depend on your immediate physical environment or context

when you learn?

Field-dependent learners learn best in "natural" contexts, the contexts in which

they would learn something without really trying, because learning and experiencing

are so closely tied together. This sort of learner prefers learning-by-doing, handson

work, on-the-job training to school work or learning-by-reading. Field-dependent

language-learners learn best in the foreign country, by mingling with native speakers

and trying to understand and speak; they will learn worst in a traditional foreignlanguage

classroom, with its grammatical rules and vocabulary lists and artificial

contexts, and marginally better in a progressive classroom employing methodologies

from suggestopedia (accelerated learning (Lozanov 1971/1992)), total physical

response (Asher 1985), or the natural method (Krashen and Terrell 1983). Fielddependent

translators will learn to translate by translating — and, of course, by living

and traveling in foreign cultures, visiting factories and other workplaces where

specialized terminology is used, etc. They will shun translator-training programs

and abstract academic translation theories; but may feel they are getting something

worthwhile from a more hands-on, holistic, contextually based translator-training


Field-independent learners learn best in artificial or "irrelevant" contexts. They

prefer to learn about things, usually from a distance. They love to learn in classrooms,

from textbooks and other textual materials (including the World Wide Web or CDROM

encyclopedias), or from teachers' lectures. They find it easiest to internalize

predigested materials, and greatly appreciate being offered summaries, outlines,

diagrams and flowcharts. (In this book, field-independent learners will prefer the

chapters to the exercises.) Field-independent language-learners will learn well in

traditional grammar-and-vocabulary classrooms; but given the slow pace of such

classrooms, they may prefer to learn a foreign language by buying three books, a

grammar, a dictionary, and a novel. Field-independent translators will gravitate

toward the classroom, both as students and as teachers (indeed they may well prefer

teaching, studying, and theorizing translation to actually doing it). As translation

teachers and theorists they will tend to generate elaborate systems models of

translational or cultural processes, and will find the pure structures of these models

more interesting than real-life examples.