Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Suggestions for further reading

Anderman, Rogers, and del Valle (2003), Duff (1989), Finlay (1971), Jones (1997),

Mikkelson (2000b), Phelan (2001), Picken (1989), Robinson (1991), Samuelsson-Brown

(1993), Sofer (2000)


3 The translator as learner

The translator's intelligence 49

The translator's memory 50

Representational and procedural memory 51

Intellectual and emotional memory 52

Context, relevance, multiple encoding 53

The translator's learning styles 55

Context 57

Field-dependent/independent 57

Flexible/structured environment 60

Independence / dependence / interdependence 61

Relationship- / content-driven 62

Input 63

Visual 63

Auditory 64

Kinesthetic 66

Processing 68

Contextual-global 68

Sequential-detailed/linear 69

Conceptual (abstract) 70

Concrete (objects and feelings) 70

Response 71

Externally / internally referenced 71

Matching/mismatching 73

Impulsive-experimental /analytical-reflective 74

Discussion 75

Exercises 76

THESIS: translation is intelligent activity involving complex processes of

conscious and unconscious learning; we all learn in different ways, and

institutional learning should therefore be as flexible and as complex and rich as

possible, so as to activate the channels through which each student learns best.

The translator's intelligence

The question posed by Chapter 2 was: how can the translator maximize speed and

enjoyment while not minimizing (indeed if possible while enhancing) reliability?

How can the translator translate faster and have more fun doing it, while gaining

and maintaining a deserved reputation as a good translator?

At first glance the desires to translate faster and to translate reliably might seem

to be at odds with one another. One commonsensical assumption says that the faster

you do something, the more likely you are to make mistakes; the more slowly you

work, the more likely that work is to be reliable. The reliable translator shouldn't

make (major) mistakes, so s/he shouldn't try to translate fast.

But increased speed, at least up to a point, really only damages reliability when

you are doing something new or unfamiliar, something that requires concentration,

which always takes time. "Old" and "familiar" actions, especially habitual actions,

can be performed both quickly and reliably because habit takes over. You're late in

the morning, so you brush your teeth, tie your shoes, throw on your coat, grab your

keys and wallet or purse and run for the door, start the car and get on the road, all

in about two minutes — and you don't forget anything, you don't mistie your shoes,

you don't grab a fork and a spoon instead of your keys, because you've done all these

things so many times before that your body knows what to do, and does it.

And there are important parallels between this "bodily memory" and translation.

Experienced translators are fast because they have translated so much that it often

seems as if their "brain" isn't doing the translating — their fingers are. They recognize

a familiar source-language structure and they barely pause before their fingers are

racing across the keyboard, rendering it into a well-worn target-language structural

equivalent, fitted with lexical items that seem to come to them automatically,

without conscious thought or logical analysis. Simultaneous interpreters don't seem

to be thinking at all — who, the astonished observer wonders, could possibly think

that fast? No, it is impossible; the words must be coming to the interpreter from

somewhere else, some subliminal or even mystical part of the brain that ordinary

people lack.

It should be clear, however, that even at its most "habitual" or "subliminal,"

translation is not the same sort of activity as tying your shoes or brushing your teeth.

Translation is always intelligent behavior — even when it seems least conscious or

analytical. Translation is a highly complicated process requiring rapid multilayered

analyses of semantic fields, syntactic structures, the sociology and psychology of

reader- or listener-response, and cultural difference. Like all language use, translation

is constantly creative, constantly new. Even translators of the most formulaic

source texts, like weather reports, repeatedly face novel situations and must engage

in unexpected problem-solving. And most translation tasks are enormously more

complex than those. As William H. Calvin writes in How Brains Think (1996: 1, 13):

Piaget used to say that intelligence is what you use when you don't know what

to do . . . If you're good at finding the one right answer to life's multiple-choice

questions, you're smart. But there's more to being intelligent — a creative aspect,

whereby you invent something new "on the fly." . . . This captures the element

of novelty, the coping and groping ability needed when there is no "right

answer," when business as usual isn't likely to suffice. Intelligent improvising.

Think of jazz improvisations rather than a highly polished finished product, such

as a Mozart or Bach concerto. Intelligence is about the process of improvising

and polishing on the timescale of thought and action.

This book is about such intelligence as it is utilized in professional translation. It

seeks both to teach you about that intelligence, and to get you to use that intelligence

in faster, more reliable, and more enjoyable ways. This will entail both developing

your analytical skills and learning to sublimate them, becoming both better and

faster at analyzing texts and contexts, people and moods: better because more

accurate, faster because less aware of your own specific analytical processes. In this

chapter we will be exploring the complex learning processes by which novices

gradually become experienced professionals; in Chapter 4 we will be developing a

theoretical model for the translation process; and in Chapters 5 through 11 we will

be moving through a series of thematic fields within translation — people, language,

social networks, cultural difference — in which this process must be applied.