Авторы: 159 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

Книги:  184 А Б В Г Д Е З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я

8 Languages

This chapter is an attempt to reframe linguistic approaches to translation in terms

of students' acts of dynamic theorizing — to offer students analytical and imaginative

tools with which to transform static, formalistic, and heavily idealized linguistic

theories into mental processes in which they too can participate. The chapter is

based on the dual assumption that (1) the use of language is primary, and is steeped

in specific language-use situations in which we try to figure out what the other

person is saying, gradually building up a sense of the patterns and regularities in

speech and writing; and (2) abstract linguistic structures are deductive patterns that

grow out of that process of sense-making, not (as linguists beginning with Saussure

believe) ideal structures that exist prior to speech and are, alas, mangled by actual

speakers. Abstract linguistic structures are the inventions of linguists trying to reduce

the complexity of language to logical forms. And that is a perfectly natural part of

language use. We always try to find patterns; and because language is too complex

for the patterns we find, we always overgeneralize. Overgeneralization is not only

a natural but also a valuable reaction to complexity; in this sense linguists perform

an important function. It is essential, however, that we remember what we (and

linguists) are doing, that we are overgeneralizing, reducing complexity to an artificial

simplicity — that we not start believing, with Saussure and Chomsky and the

linguistic tradition, that we are somehow uncovering the "true underlying structure"

of language.